T-82

From Atlas
T-82
T-82 winter camo 1.png
A T-82U of the 16th Guards Tank Division during the Zerino-Stasnovan War of 1991.
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin  Stasnov
 Gorbatov (BT-82)
Service history
Used by see users
Production history
Designer Tormavkovo Mozhaev Military Design Bureau
Designed 1967–1975
Manufacturer Moskvingrad Zhukov Plant
Produced 1976–1995
Number built +6,800
+8,000 (BT-82)
Specifications
Weight 42.5 tonnes T-82B, 46 tonnes T-82U
Length 9.9 m (32 ft 6 in) T-82B, 9.654 m (31 ft 8.1 in) T-82U (gun forward)

7.4 m (24 ft 3 in) T-82B, 7 m (23 ft 0 in) T-82U, (hull)

Width 3.4 m (11 ft 2 in) T-82B

3.603 m (11 ft 9.9 in) T-82U

Height 2.202 m (7 ft 2.7 in) T-82B, T-82U
Crew 3

Armor Steel and composite Armor
Main
armament
4A76/4A76M/4A76M-5 125 mm smoothbore gun with ATGM capability
Secondary
armament
12.7 mm NSVT/Kord, 7.62 mm PKMT
Engine GT-1000 gas turbine (T-82B), GT-1250 turbine (T-82U)
1000 hp (T-82B), 1250 hp (T-82U)
Suspension Torsion-bars
Operational
range
415 km (258 mi) (road, with external tanks)
Speed 70 km/h (43 mph) (road)
48 km/h (30 mph) (cross country)

The T-82 is a third-generation main battle tank (MBT) designed and manufactured in the United Socialist Republics of Stasnov. A development of the T-67, it entered service in 1976. The T-82U was last produced in the Moskvingrad Zhukov Plant. The T-80 and its variants are in service in Stasnov, and with a further derivative in service with Gorbatov, known as the BT-82, where it was further developed into the BT-92.

Development and production history[edit]

The Stasnovan project to build a turbine-powered tank began in 1949, in the Tormavkovo Mozhaev Military Design Bureau. The tank concept was never actually built however, because the turbine engines at that time were of very poor quality. Several years later, a tank based on the T-10M was built with turbine engine, but was never put in service. The project was abandoned and in the following years the research for turbine-powered tanks received limited funding.

In 1963, the Tomarvkovo Mozhaev Military Design Bureau designed the T-67 prototype, also known as Ob'yekt 467. In tandem with the TMDB, Bolgarvagonzavod worked on several prototypes based on the T-67, with one notably having two aerial turbine engines, all of which were deemed either too expensive or ineffective. In 1969, the TMDB team, led by Arsneny Kirov, presented their own prototype based on the T-67. It was constructed in 1969 and designated Ob'yekt 468 SP1. It was renamed the T-67T, and was powered by a GT-1000T multi-fuel gas turbine engine producing up to 1,000 hp . During the trials it became clear that the increased weight and dynamic characteristics required a complete redesign of the vehicle's caterpillar track system.

The second prototype, designated Ob'yekt 468 SP2, received bigger drive sprockets and return rollers. The number of wheels was increased from five to six. The construction of the turret was altered to use the same compartment, 125 mm 4A76 tank gun, auto loader and placement of ammunition as the T-67A. Some additional equipment was scavenged from the T-67A. The TMDB plant built a series of prototypes based on Ob'yekt 468 SP2. After seven years of upgrades, the tank became the T-82.

Following the restoration of Staso-Gorbatovic ties, following the end of the Stasno-Gorbatovic split, Gorbatov became the first to adopt the T-82 tank aside from Stasnov, adopting the T-82A, under the designation of BT-82. Under Gorbatovic service, the T-82 was heavily modified to match Proletarian Liberation Army standards. In tandem with the TMDB, Gorbatov's Voronezh Machine-Building Design Bureau developed a diesel-engine version of the T-82U, dubbing it as the T-82UD. By the end of 1999, Stasnov lacked the continued interest in the long-run with the their continued investment on the T-94, the T-82UD program was discontinued within the Stasnovan military. But, concurrent with the development of the T-82UD, Gorbatov developed its own version of the T-82UD to match with its own standards. By the early 2000s, Gorbatov re-engined all of its remaining BT-82s into the diesel variant. In 1992, VKBM develop the BT-92, a further development of the BT-82, with improvements to the overall design, focusing on greater reliability and capability of the tank, to be on par with contemporary designs, such as the T-94 and Nashorn-2 tanks.

Service History[edit]

First Rekovian War[edit]

The losses of the T-82 during First Rekovian War were one of the deciding factors production of turbine-powered tanks was never continued by Stasnov. Especially in the first days of the war, when the T-82 was used by Stasnovan commanders in a wrong way, like assaulting cities, losses were heavy. The Stasnovan tank crews were generally unprepared for unconventional urban fighting, and thus performed poorly.

The T-82 tanks were especially vulnerable to attacks on the sides and rear - that were unprotected by the explosive reactive armor - by rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank guided missiles, because of their auto-loader which had the rounds placed vertically. In theory the ammunition should have been protected by the road wheel, but, when the tanks got hit on their side armor, the ready-to-use ammunition exploded, causing a so-called catastrophic kill. Also vulnerable was their gas turbine engine. Additionally, the heat generated by the gas turbine's exhausts made it extremely hard for infantry to take cover directly behind the tank when the engine was on, something that was detrimental in combat.

Design[edit]

The T-82 is similar in layout to the T-67; the driver's compartment is on the center line at the front, the two-man turret is in the center with gunner on the left and commander on the right, and the engine is rear mounted. Overall, its shape is also very similar to the T-67 as well.

Armament[edit]

The main gun is fed by an automatic loader. This holds up to 28 rounds of two-part ammunition in a carousel located under the turret floor. Additional ammunition is stored within the turret. The ammunition comprises the projectile (APFSDS, HEAT or HE-Frag) plus the propellant charge, or the two-part missile. The auto-loader is an effective, reliable, combat tested system which has been in use since the mid-1960s. The propellant charge is held inside a semi-combustible cartridge case made of a highly flammable material – this is consumed in the breech during firing, except for a small metal base-plate.

Mobility[edit]

The original T-82 design uses a 1,000 horsepower gas turbine instead of a diesel engine, although some later variants of the T-82 revert to diesel engine usage. The gearbox is different, with five forward and one reverse gear, instead of seven forward and one reverse. Suspension reverts from pneumatic to torsion bar, with six forged steel-aluminium rubber-tire road wheels on each side, with the tracks driven by rear sprockets. The T-82UD replaced the gas turbine engine with a E-1250 diesel engine, producing 1250 hp, that was also used on the then-new, early production T-94.

Protection[edit]

The T-82's armor is made of composite armor on the turret and hull, while rubber flaps and side skirts protect the sides and lower hull. The later T-82 models use explosive reactive armor and stronger armor, like the T-82U and T-82UD. The T-82BV was equipped with Mech-1 ERA bricks, while the T-82U and T-82UD had Mech-5 ERA bricks mounted. Other protection systems include the Stena and Okhrana series of APS systems. The T-82U/UD equiped with Mech-5 ERA has an 780 mm of RHA vs APFSDS, while it has 1320 mm RHA vs HEAT.

Export[edit]

The T-82, like the T-67, was one of the Stasnovan tanks that never saw export during the Cold War, because it was simply considered too advanced by the military and political leadership. However, after the end of the Stasno-Gorbatovic split, the T-82 was adopted by Gorbatov's Proletarian Liberation Army, dubbed as the BT-82.

Variants[edit]

From top to bottom: T-82, T-82B, T-82BV, T-82U
  • Object 282: Prototype model. The construction of the turret was also altered while using the same apartment as the T-67A which was 125 mm 2A46 tank gun, auto loader and the placement of ammunition.
  • T-82(1976): Initial model, with 1,000-hp gas turbine engine, coincidence rangefinder, and no missile capability. This model does not have fittings for explosive reactive armor. The turret is from the T-67A, and thus retains the use of the old coincidence rangefinder. Characteristics of this type are the V shaped water deflector on the front glacis, coincidence rangefinder in front of the commander's cupola, and Luna searchlight. Around 200 were produced.
  • T-82B(1978): This model had a new turret, laser rangefinder, fire-control, and auto-loader allowing the firing of 9M112-1 Kobra antitank guided missile (80% hits in the places and on the move), and improved composite armor. An improved 1,100-hp engine (GT-1,000) was added in 1980, a new gun (4A76M) in 1982, and fittings for reactive armor in 1985. Reactive armor adds protection of 400 mm equivalent armor to defend against HEAT warheads. Night fighting capabilities were also improved.
  • T-82BV(1985): Essentially a T-82B fitted with Mech-1 explosive reactive armor, which also came with more modern ammunition as standard.
  • Object 282A (1982): Also known as T-82A. It was an early version of the T-82U. It has the T-82U's turret, but not the Mech-5 ERA. Instead, it uses the old Mech-1 system; some T-82As did not have ERA at all. Only rougly 100 were produced, and were later converted to T-82Us.
  • T-82U (1985): Further development with a better turret, Mech-5 explosive reactive armor, improved gun sight, and 9K119 Refleks missile system. In 1990 a new 1,250-hp engine was installed. The infra-red searchlight mounted on the commander's cupola is replaced with an image intensification channel . The improved 9M119M missile was used since 1990. The tanks in of commander version (T-82UK) were equipped with Stena-1 soft-kill APS, and thermal imaging night sight. The Okhrana Hard-Kill active protection systems have also been installed on some tanks beginning 1990, though this was later discontinued.
  • T-82UD (1987): Variant with E-1250 diesel engine instead of turbine. First prototypes produced in 1987, with a number of T-82Us converted in 1999. IR sight was removed and replaced by thermal imaging system. Though having lacked sufficient interest in Stasnov, the variant continued development with Gorbatov's VKBM, as the BT-82.
  • T-82M (2016): Radical modernization of the T-80BV featuring new gunner and commander sights, 3rd generation "Zashchita" heavy ERA, and a an upgraded E-1300M diesel engine. Similar modernization of the T-80U has been dubbed T-82M1, but the project hasn't started yet.

Operators[edit]