Huda

From Atlas
The Hudian Republic
হুডিয়ান প্রজাতন্ত্র
Flag
Flag
National Emblem
National Emblem
Motto: শক্তি, সফলতা এবং শান্তি
Strength, prosperity and peace!
Anthem: লাল সপ্তর্ষি
Red Saptorshi
Capital
and largest city
Husseinabad
Official languagesBengali, French
Recognised National LanguagesBengali
Recognised Regional LanguagesBengali, Hindi
Ethnic groups (2019)81.2% Bengali
8.4% Riali
1.6% Yazran
1% Ziadi
7.8% others
Religion82.5% Islam
7.5% Hinduism
6% Christianity
2% Sikhism
1% Atheism
1% others
DemonymHudian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Anahita Anoara Saleh
• Prime Minister
Zaheer Abbas
Establishment
17 November 702
5 August 1249
21 October 1604
15 September 1918
10 October 1961
30 May 1968
Area
• Total
903,584 km2 (348,876 sq mi)
• Water (%)
7.1
Population
• 2019 census
54,392,941
• Density
62.41/km2 (161.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.92 trillion
• Per capita
$35,298.37
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
$1.81 trillion
• Per capita
$33,276.37
Gini (2018)26.1
low
HDI (2018)0.812
very high
CurrencyHudian Taka (হ৳)
Time zoneHudian Standard Time (UTC+6)
• Summer (DST)
Hudian Summer Time (UTC+5)
Drives on theleft
Calling code+990
ISO 3166 codeHUD
Internet TLD.hd

The Hudian Republic, commonly referred to as Huda (Bengali: হুদা), is a parliamentary republic located in the continent of Serica. It is the largest country in South Serica, as well as the most developed. The capital and largest city of the Hudian Republic is Husseinabad, although it is closely matched by the port cities of Fatemabagh and Sufiyapara. The nation is home to a variety of ethnic groups, of which the most prominent are the Bengali people. Additionally, there is a wide variety of religion practiced in the nation. Islam is the largest religion, however, with approximately 83% of the population following it.

The nation is also home to the Bay of Husseinabad, as well as several islands - among which the largest is Faarah Island. The Hudian mainland is home to several tropical forests and rivers. Its northern borders are largely mountainous and full of vegetation, while the south has begun to face issues regarding environmental protection as urban areas have begun to encroach upon natural areas, causing deforestation and loss of habitat. The Hudian Republic is also home to the Mahaban, the world's largest mangrove forest. It possesses diverse flora and fauna, with animals such as the Hudian Tiger found exclusively in the country.

The first signs of established civilizations and political entities in the Hudian Republic took place around the fifth century BCE, when its first city states came to be. These city states grew to become ancient powerful kingdoms, such as the Dhir Kingdom as well as the Khosnad Kingdom. Islam spread into the region around the seventh century AD, through Sufi traders from Aestia. An insurrection in the ancient city of Madhuridai sparked the establishment of the Hudian Sultanate. The Sultanate reigned for several years in relative peace and prosperity, although with the end of the Huda dynasty in 1241, it was marked by an era of dramatic expansion under Bahadur Khan, who established the Bahariyan Empire. The Bahariyan Empire would continue to thrive for decades, although it did face a few crises such as the Sufiyapara Treatise, the establishment of Lyonian colonies as well as the First Zemindar Uprising. There would be a renewed period of expansion during the rule of Mubarak Khan, who would take over what is now modern day Ziadistan and Riala. Despite his success, the Empire would face swift decline after its failed Conquest of Yetpa in 1392. It faced severe repercussions which caused it to go into economic and military decline the following several years. The arrival of Acronian privateers in 1603 led to the Saffron War. Its defeat at the hands of the Acronians in the Second Battle of the Saptorshi in 1604 had effectively ended its existence.

Acronian rule had lasted for several centuries, until the end of the Great War in 1916. The colony's extensive involvement in the conflict had impressed King Alexander III, who decided to grant the Hudian people independence under exceptional circumstances, ultimately resulting in the establishment of the First Hudian Republic the next year. The Republic had managed to make exceptional strides in political stability and economic development for a country that had been devastated in the Great War. Ultimately, the First Hudian Republic had been replaced by the Hudian Socialist Republic in 1961, after a Stasnovan-backed coup d'état. The communist regime, led by Khaled Rahman had been largely unpopular and amid growing public discontent, was overthrown by a popular revolution in 1968. The nation has since reverted back to a parliamentary democracy. Despite the instability faced in the 60s, several key economic and political reforms since have allowed the country to develop at a remarkable pace.

Etymology[edit]

The Hudian Republic has had various names throughout its existence as a political entity, but the identity of the region as Huda was first noted during the 701 Madhuridai Insurrection. The insurrection was led by Khawja Huda, a prominent Muslim trader in the city. His successful revolt had ultimately culminated in the establishment of the Hudian Sultanate, which was named after him.

Following the end of the Hudian Sultanate, the Bahariyan Empire resisted efforts to retain the name of its predecessor, going so far as to breaking up its heartland into several provinces - demarcations that are still used today. Nonetheless, their efforts were sidelined by a majority of the populace, who continued to use the name in informal usage. The East Acronian Administration, however, returned the name to official usage when granting emancipation to various states in the Sheridan-Richelieu Conference.

History[edit]

Pre-history and antiquity[edit]

The first humans to properly inhabit Huda had settled in the land approximately 25,000 years ago, evidenced by pottery and tools found in the Dobilapur cave system, which is the oldest discovered prehistoric settlement. The region was settled mostly by Indo-Aryans as well as Dravidians during the time, followed by a wave of Tibeto-Burmans several centuries later. These groups mostly settled in various cave systems in the north, and it would not be until some 10,000 years later that the first man-made settlements came to be. These man-made settlements were mainly constructed using rocks, branches and animal bones.

Such man-made settlements have been more common in the south of Huda, likely due to the lack of mountainous terrain and thus cave systems, causing for the early Hudians to adapt and create settlements of their own. Approximately 11,000 years ago, rock paintings in settlement indicate the domestication of both the goat and sheep. Architectural evidence also indicates the cultivation of wheat and tropical fruit was widespread at the time. Several riverine settlements had also taken to fishing around the same time. Furthermore, there is evidence of early metalworking from 5500 BCE, through the smelting of copper ores.

The Hudian culture and civilisation consolidated in the thousands of years that followed, with settlements growing exponentially in size. Several settlements grew and endured for centuries to come, the best example being the city of Madhuridai, which grew to hold over 10,000 individuals around 6,500 years ago. The earliest record of Hudian writing and thus the first historical records of the region come from the city, through cuneiform limestone tablets dating back to 2500 BCE.

Statue of Buddha, recovered from Madhuridai c. 5 AD.

By the time writing was well-established in the region, settlements managed to communicate with each other, allowing for trade and diplomacy to occur between settlements. By 1000 BCE, the surrounding region had become highly populated with several settlements stretching what is now modern day Huda. Several of these settlements benefited greatly from the Iron Age, and the advancement of society through the use of agriculture, coinage and weaponry allowed for these settlements to grow into sizeable political entities.

The first identifiable political entity would be the Council of Madhuridai, a short-lived oligarchy that led the very ancient city, which had continued to grow steadily through the years. Several entities in other settlements followed it, establishing their own councils. However, the most sizeable political change would occur around 400 BCE, with the formation of the Dhir Kingdom. The Dhir Kingdom grew massively powerful, absorbing neighbouring city-states around it to form a sizeable regional power. Various other kingdoms, chieftains and other sizeable political entities rose up at the time, although several were simply absorbed by larger powers, resulting in the first regional conflicts. By the end of the common era, the region was held by three kingdoms, namely the Khosnad Kingdom, Dhir Kingdom and the Kharag Kingdom.

Religion had also been introduced in the region as the same time as these kingdoms rose to power. By the end of the common era, Buddhism and Hinduism were chiefly practised by the populace. Religion was a popular cause of infighting between the kingdoms, resulting in conflicts such as the Dhir-Khosnad Holy War as well as the Kharag war. Despite the frequency of these conflicts, they were usually inconclusive and thus allowed for there to exist a state of peaceful, albeit uneasy coexistence between the kingdoms.

Early Middle Ages[edit]

The seventh century was an uneasy period for the three kingdoms in the region. There was a discontent among the peasantry in the kingdoms, primarily sparked by social inequality as well as a rise in hostilities between the kingdoms. The first Sufi traders from Aestia arrived around this time, settling in mainly coastal cities. Their wealth and power grew exponentially in the years that followed, and this attracted several followers. Islam spread rapidly through the region, to the point where it had become the majority religion.

The Hindu and Buddhist nobility across the three kingdoms were threatened by the rise of Islam. Several nobles forced those that worked in their households to convert or face death, while kings actively attempted to curb the powers of the Muslim traders, who had become important burghers in their respective cities. By the end of the century, the rift between religions had led to severe violence between both sides. The most notable would be the Night of Martyrs, when a congregation of Muslims in the Dhir city of Mahesali was attacked by the town guard. This attack led to the razing of the newly formed Muslim quarter in the city, in order to prevent the news of the attack from spreading.

However, Muslims in the nearby capital of Madhuridai were informed by the next day. Rioting began almost immediately, and several Muslim traders started calling for an uprising. According to the True History of the Hudian Sultanate, Muslims of the city had fled into the countryside the evening after the rioting. The Muslims in Madhuridai formed an overwhelming majority at the time, accounting for 60% of its inhabitants. As a result, most eyewitness reports described the city as deserted that night.

A damaged portrait of King Pranav IX c. 682

The Dhir King Pranav IX imposed martial law immediately, ordering for the arrest of all Muslims within the Kingdom. In response to this, Khawja Huda, one of the traders who had fled Madhuridai, organized the Muslims and declared a jihad on the Dhir Kingdom. This was the beginning of the 701 Madhuridai Insurrection. The Muslims took up arms and within weeks had amassed outside of Madhuridai, which had been well fortified by the city guard by then. The month long Siege of Madhuridai (701) had begun.

After the fall of Madhuridai to Muslim forces, Pranav IX fled the capital city and consolidated his forces in the remaining cities of the Kingdom. Word spread of the newly emerged insurrection to other Muslims in the region. Inspired by the success of the Muslim insurrectionists, several minor rebellions had begun in the Kharag and Khosnad kingdoms, although they would fail to make any major initiatives. The insurrection in the Dhir Kingdom continued for over a year, until the final Siege of Mahesali. Pranav IX was captured in the aftermath of the siege. According to ibn Talal, a commander of the Muslim army, Pranav was bound to a donkey and forced to walk barefoot back to Madhuridai.

Upon reaching Madhuridai, the imprisoned King was offered an audience with Khawja. The leader of the rebellion had initially offered clemency to the King, offering to simply exile him. However, Pranav IX refused this judgement, stating that he "cannot live knowing that [he] had lost the birthright of [his] ancestors.". The next day, on the 16th of November 702, Pranav IX was beheaded. With the death of the last Dhir king, Khawja Huda proclaimed the first ever Hudian Sultanate, crowning himself Sultan. The city of Madhuridai was renamed as Husseinabad, and other cities soon followed the Islamization brought on by the Sultanate. (REFORM RIALA) The establishment of the Sultanate triggered a mass exodus of Muslims from both the Khosnad and Kharag Kingdoms. Noting the power of this newly formed Sultanate, regional kingdoms sent emissaries to the Sultan in hopes of achieving a lasting peace. The First Treaty of Husseinabad guaranteed an indefinite truce between the Kharag and Khosnad Kingdoms, as well as the distant Rialan Raj, which guaranteed security in the region for several years. During this time, the size of the Sultanate continued to grow, and Husseinabad became a hub for trade between powers in Eastern Serica and Aestia.

Sultan Khawja reneged on the treaty on its thirtieth anniversary, the 27th of November 732. He declared a holy war on the Kharag Kingdom, after hearing word that a sizeable Hudian caravan had been assaulted by soldiers from the kingdom. The validity of such news has long been disputed, as at the time the kingdom had fall into disrepair and its roads were frequented by bandits. Nonetheless, this began the War of the Crescent. The Khosnad Kingdom, fearing the consequences of yet another Muslim conquest, immediately sided with the Kharag Kingdom and declared war on the Hudian Sultanate. The Rialan Raj, another signatory of the treaty, chose not to intervene in the conflict so as to prevent any acts of retribution by Muslims in its own borders.

The War of the Crescent was devastating to both sides. Initially, the joint Khosnad-Kharag forces had managed to take the Hudians by surprise, winning several key battles such as the Battle of Kalyakot Pass as well as the Defense of Samadpur, forcing a stalemate upon the Hudian forces who were now attempting offensives on two fronts. The war had entered a passive phase during winter that year, and a temporary truce was called during Ramadan, to allow Muslim soldiers to observe the holy month. However, fighting escalated from spring the next year. Hudian forces launched an all new offensive towards the eastern front, taking over large swathes of Kharagi land. It had become evident that immediate action had to be taken. In response, a gargantuan army of both the Kharagi and Khosnad Kingdoms, led by their monarchs, marched towards Husseinabad, in order to seize the capital in a lightning offensive.

A depiction of the First Battle of the Saptorshi c. 746

The Kharagi-Khosnad army was confronted by a smaller Hudian army at the Saptorshi River. Led by Rasheed ibn Khattab, the army had been ordered only a few days prior to take defensive positions at the river to face the massive opposing army and delay their offensive, while a larger force led by the Sultan would reinforce them in time. The Kharagi-Khosnad force was at a disadvantage - it was monsoon season, and as a result their movement was hampered by floods and muddy terrain. Nonetheless, they had managed to overwhelm Rasheed's army in the First Battle of the Saptorshi, forcing them to retreat away from the river.

The next day, however, the Sultan's army had arrived. Well-fed and rested, the arrival of the Sultan raised the morale of the remnants of Rasheed's army, and a fresh assault was called. The new Muslim force, now larger than the Khosnad-Kharagi army, fought "with unprecedented vigour and fervour" according to ibn Talal. The battle lasted for the entire day, and by evening, the Kharagi-Khosnad forces surrendered. The Khosnad King Vijya III was killed in the midst of battle, while the Kharag King Ravi VI was captured. The Kharag Kingdom had completely surrendered to the Sultanate, and control of the Kingdom was handed over to the Sultan. As for the Khosnad Kingdom, the new King Vijya IV attempted to hold out against the Sultanate, but his lack of forces and support rendered this attempt futile. The Kingdom fell next year, and Vijya IV had disappeared.

The Sultan passed away days after the battle at the river. According to the True History of the Hudian Sultanate, he had been ill since the conclusion of the battle, and by the time had returned to Husseinabad, was already dying. With the passing of the Sultan, his son would succeed him as Khawja II. The years that followed would consist of rebuilding what was a war-torn region. Several laws were passed and established around this time, mainly dealing with the remnants of the Buddhist and Hindu faiths. Battered by the effects of the devastating war, the Sultan was wary against fighting again with the Rialan Raj. Consequently, the Sultanate maintained a tenuous peace with the Raj. Most of the persecuted remnants fled westwards to the Raj. Failing that, several went eastwards, towards what is now modern day Yetpa, where several nomadic tribes had started to settle, and began growing in size.

Late Middle Ages[edit]

Alabaster Quarter, the oldest existing building of the university today
After the conclusion of the War of the Crescent, and the subsequent rebuilding of the region, the Sultanate experienced time of relative peace and stability. The Huda dynasty managed to retain power for several centuries, and this stability of government permitted the subjects of the Sultanate to enjoy an era of scientific advancement, trade as well as development. The University of Husseinabad would be established during the reign of Khawja XI around 1049 AD, making it one of the oldest universities in the world. The cultivation of expensive spices such as saffron would contribute to the economic growth of the Sultanate, and traders from various distant parts of the world would often pay high prices for the spice.

However, a succession crisis would erupt after the death of Khawja XIV, which occurred on the 7th of June, 1221. The late Sultan had died from a sudden bout of illness, at the age of 18, and as a result had not appointed a heir to the throne. In order to preserve the rulership of the dynasty, the Grand Vizier Shahjahan appointed Khawja's sister, Zaynab, as the first Sultana of the Hudian Sultanate. She was crowned Sultana Nazma I, after the wife of the first Sultan. Nazma I's reign was met with fierce opposition from clerics and landowner nobles alike, who refused to see a woman on the throne. Nazma managed to pacify opposition to her rule and held onto her throne for two years. She strengthened her rule by marrying a powerful noble and commander of the Sultanate's army Bahadur Khan. Ultimately, she passed away after giving birth to a stillborn daughter, who is attributed to be the last member of the primary line of the Huda dynasty.

As a influential man and the widow of the late Sultana, Bahadur Khan seized power and proclaimed himself the new Sultan, beginning his own dynasty. He married the daughter of an influential landlord. His heir and first child, Arafat Khan was born in 1244, only a year after his marriage. The family would continue to grow during Bahadhur Khan's rule, and the Sultan intertwined his own dynasty with that of several landlords and clerics, allowing for the dynasty to consolidate its rule in what was a politically tense climate.

Bahadur Khan led several expeditions during his rule. The first, and most prominent, was the Faarah Expedition in 1249. Departing from the fabled port city of Bahariya, he and his men took over and completely decimated the native population of what is now known as Faarah Island. Returning from the expedition, Bahadur Khan proclaimed a new era of strength, and established the Bahariyan Empire, moving his capital to the port city from where his expeditions began. He named this first conquest after his daughter, Faarah Khan.

Following the death of Bahadur in 1269, his son Arafat Khan took to power. Compared to his father, Arafat was wildly unpopular for the populace. According to the famous Imam Ja'afar Sadiq, "[He] was a drunkard and an idolizer, unfit to be our Emperor.". His lack of popularity had come at a time when Muslim clerics had gained a striking amount of following. In order to appease the powerful clerics and avoid abdication, Arafat signed the Sufiyapara Treatise. In line with the treatise, he made several concessions, ranging from minor ones (the opening of the court to be sounded with (al-Fatiha) to major ones (the Islamic Inquisition (1272]). Arafat spent the rest of his life trying to resist the political intrigues of court, many of which were intended to topple him. Not only had he survived, but he had also emerged victorious - near the end of his reign, the clerics had fallen out of favour with the people, allowing him to disband the treatise.

He was succeeded by his third son, his handpicked successor Jamal Khan. Compared to his father and grandfather, unfortunately, Jamal did not enjoy a particularly long reign. Although the late victories that had happened prior to his father's demise certainly eased the political situation, his short reign was affected by the Aboron plague of 1313. Not only would the Aboron plague persist, almost gutting the region, but it would also result in the death of Jamal. He would be succeeded by Aftab Khan, his older brother. The following Emperors would focus on rebuilding and retaining the Empire, and it would take several years until the Empire would return to anything close to its former self. This era of rebuilding was full of discontent, ultimately resulting in the First Zemindar Uprising.

The Empire, preoccupied with rebuilding itself and fighting off the uprising, would be caught unawares by the threat of foreign powers. Adriano Mauro, a Lyonian, would lead an imperial expedition to South Serica in 1505, setting up the Forte Speranza in eastern Riala after filing a treaty with the Rialan Raja Amitabh IX and building settlements in a few other areas. Although it had long traded with foreign entities, the Empire itself had not expected the arrival of armed Lyonians, who landed in its south-eastern coast, hoping to establish another fort. Emperor Sadiq Khan vehemently rejected this proposal, already embarrassed by the Empire's recent losses against the rebelling zemindars.

Matters would be exacerbated within days, when local Bahariyans would attempt to set fire to a Lyonian camp. Angered by this offense, Adriano Mauro ordered the bombardment and conquest of the city of Sagarpara, taking it over much to the surprise of an unprepared Bahariyan garisson. The surrounding islands and settlements would also be seized by the Lyonians. Upon hearing word of this, the Bahariyan emperor was reported to have "sunken into his chair in defeat, muttering out prayers to [God]". A truce was proposed by the Bahariyans, and by the end of 1506, Sagarpara and its surrounding settlements would become a part of Lyonian territory. The city was renamed Baia della Tranquillità or the Tranquility Bay by the Lyonians, and would grow to be a major shipping port in the decades to come. Subsequent reinforcements would introduce Leonello de Medare as the Viceré of Lyonian assets of the region.

Mauro carried out an expedition in 1510, reneging on the previous truce and taking over the entirety of the Bahariyan Empire's relatively uninhabited and undefended southern islands, which had been home to few forts and settlements since the Empire had taken it over centuries ago. There, Viceré de Medare would establish Colline de Fiori or the Flower Hills, the capital of the Lyonian colonies in South Serica. Today, the city is known as Prarambho. The Viceré, who did not wish to aggravate the Bahariyans any further, filed for another definitive truce. Under de Medare, the Lyonian colonies would enjoy a peaceful era of building, trade and cooperation with the Bahariyan Empire, which eased tensions between both parties. Mauro would go on another expedition four years later, in 1514, towards Yetpa. In order to continue to solidify relations with the neighbouring empire, Grimaldi would approve for several trade agreements with the Bahariyans around the 1530s, which would help bolster the ailing empire's economy and further guarantee good relations between both powers.

An artistic depiction of Emperor Mubarak following the Faarah Expedition

(REFORM RIALA) It would be during the reign of Emperor Mubarak the Magnificent that the Empire, having regained its power, would embark on another era of expansion, to swallow their embarrassment of losing priceless territories to the Lyonians. The Empire expanded westwards, taking over the Rialan Raj in the Jihad for Riala, as well as swathes of land in Siviras. The success of the jihad had emboldened Mubarak and his men, and he made plans to move his army east, to take over the lands occupied by several Yetpan tribes. The Yetpan tribes did not take very well to this, banding together to fight off the Bahariyan army. The conquest was a disaster, simply put. Mubarak's men, who had spent several years campaigning in the mountainous, dryer regions to the west, had not acclimatized to the dense jungles around Yetpa. Furthermore, no one had expected the Yetpan tribes to band together, and this had caused a high level of demoralization within Bahariyan ranks. Despite winning some major battles, particularly the Battle of Batta as well as the Siege of Khydraw Fort, the Bahariyan army had been bogged down in the Yetpan lands, and they had fallen prey to many attacks by minor tribes intended to cut their lines off. It would be in the Battle of the Confederates that the army would face significant losses, causing them to retreat all the way back. Afzal Khan, a nephew of the Emperor and potential heir, was captured in battle. The Empire paid a hefty sum to ransom him.

The battle had caused a very public embarrassment for Mubarak, who had been touted as unbeatable in the past. It was a strong victory for the tribes, having given them a chance to unite. The events ensuing the Battle of the Confederates would soon lead to the creation of the Yetpan Kingdom, which would outlive its Bahariyan adversary. Mubarak managed to retain control of his Empire, but the costs of the two wars had started to hit the Empire's economy, as well as the ransom it had to pay for Afzal. Things were made worse by the 1595 Husseinabad earthquake which would result in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of subjects as well as economical damage. It was clear that by the end of the century, the Bahariyan Empire was on its decline.

Acronian Conquest[edit]

Mubarak's health had started to decline in the years following his failure in Yetpa, to the point where he was bedridden by 1597. His son Faruk Khan would maintain de facto power as regent. Faruk's position as regent was wildly opposed by members of the Khan Dynasty, with his cousin Afzal and sister Aqsa vying for the post. Distracted by the power struggles in court, Faruk failed to administer the Empire effectively, angering several nobles and initiating the Second Zemindar Uprising. Pressured by both his family and the zemindars, Faruk resigned from his post in 1600, passing it on to his sister Aqsa. As regent, Aqsa enjoyed the support of both her family and nobility, which permitted her to remain very powerful. Mubarak passed away days later, on September 26, 1601. He was succeeded by his infant grandson, Ahmed Khan. Aqsa remained the regent for her son's short reign.

Acronian emissaries had entered Husseinabad on the 4th of January, 1603, with the intention of seeking a more concrete presence of trading in the region. Several requests were made, such as a lease of land for the newly established Acronian Far East Company. The Bahariyan Empire was particularly wary of this, especially having already lost several of its territories to the Lyonians. However, Aqsa had desired to avoid an embarassing war as had been faced by her predecessors a century ago. She had initially considered the offer, and the Empire had entered into talks with the emissaries for a week. Several advisors and nobles present at the court significantly opposed them, nonetheless, and eventually she chose to disregard the talks, rejecting every proposal made by the Acronians. This was likely anticipated by the Acronians, as a privateer force numbering 2,500 landed in Fatemabagh in the matter of weeks. This culminated in the Fall of Fatemabagh. Due to the sudden nature of the attack, news had taken time to reach the capital, giving the emissaries enough time to issue a declaration of war to the Empire before leaving. The Shapla War had begun in earnest.

The privateer force had set up camp around the Uqab Fort, which would remain its stronghold till the end of the war. The Bahariyans had severely undermined their enemy, and it was clear after the First Battle of Fatemabagh Coast and the Second Battle of Fatemabagh Coast that its reinforcements to the island were not enough against well-equipped Acronian privateers. It was clear to Aqsa that the Empire would have to wait for the Acronians to make their advances, and so a lot of time was spent establishing defenses. To some extent, these were successful, as evidenced in the Battle of Farazipur, wherein the Bahariyans managed to hold back the Acronian advance.

A famous painting of the Second Battle of the Saptorshi

However, the privateers managed to break through after a few days, through the Siege of Aminabad. Both sides had halted their advances after the siege, albeit temporarily. The Acronian privateers, led by Cyrus Beckett, used this lull in the fighting to pay several tributes to several landowners as a means to persuade them to switch their alleigance to the Acronian Far East Company. There were several reasons for this, and Beckett detailed these in his Fatemabagh Missive. First of all, supplies were difficult to come by, and the privateers could not rely on reinforcements from home due to the distance and time it took. The local zemindars, however, could be an excellent source of supplies. Additionally, the Bahariyan Army was gargantuan in comparison to the privateers, despite being poorly equipped and demoralized. The defections of zemindars would not only bolster the privateers but also weaken the army's numbers. Several zemindars sided with the privateers, particularly several eastern ones, who had borne the most significant losses during the failed Yetpan conquest. The privateers, with the aid of zemindars and reinforcements, succeeded with a lightning offensive in April, winning battles in the west, namely the Battle of Shishir's Rest and the several skirmishes around the Konatoli Forest. In response to this, the Empire besieged Fatemabagh. The siege was the largest and most devastating battle of the war, with the regent herself overseeing the Bahariyan side. After two months of consistent fighting, the privateers managed to lift the siege and forced the Bahariyan forces into a retreat. The privateer army chased them to the Saptorshi River, beginning what would be the penultimate battle of the war - Second Battle of the Saptorshi. The battle would result in the deaths of most members of the Khan dynasty, all of whom who had been present in both the previous siege and the battle. Following the end of the battle, Acronian privateers led by a victorious Cyrus Beckett marched to Husseinabad. The Declaration of Husseinabad resulted in the establishment of the Far East Acronian Administration.

Factions in the west of the Empire - namely Rialan nobility - began to resist against Acronian rule, in the hopes of re-establishing the Rialan Raj. The movement had been severely weakened from the very beginning, with a faction straying away from the war and declaring their own war. Neither conflict succeeded, and both were subsequently stamped out by the Acronian privateers. In the months to come, reinforcements from Acronia would consolidate the Administration's control over the region. The Acronian Invasion of Yetpa would occur a few years later, following which the entirety of South Serica would remain under the firm control of the Acronian Far East Administration. (REFORM RIALA)

Acronian Rule[edit]

South Serica as a whole was a very economically active region, and had been the world hub for spices for eras. As a result, Acronian business interests focused mainly on the spice trade, although several other regional industries were also a focus of Acronian interests. From an administrative perspective, the zemindari system in the nation was overhauled. Landowners were prohibited from holding armies as they had done during the rule of the Empire. Zemindars were reduced to land proprietors who paid rent. In order to placate them, the Administration did provide them with both titles and foreign gifts, although the more troubling zemindars (such as the remnants of the Khan family) were often subject to threats from the authorities. The Far East Acronian Army was established around this time, with the dismissal of several privateers and the inclusion of the colonial subjects. Acronian rule had been a significant challenge to the Lyonian colonies in the region. Now led by Viceré Gianni Grimaldi, the colonies would see a build up of fortifications in the backdrop of uneasy relations between both colonial powers in the region. Trade was still particularly widespread, although fierce competition often exacerbated tensions between both powers. However, both states were eager to avoid conflict.

A painting of the Masjid al-Kabir in the 1800s

Around 1653, half a century after the arrival of the Acronians, King Francis I had declared a "new era for the Far East". Missionaries were sent to the Acronian Far East Administration, with the mandate of converting subjects as well as teaching them Acronian culture and language. This was fiercely opposed by some components of the Administration, particularly Lord Henry Doisneau de Villepin (the Viceroy of Bahariya at the time)) on the grounds that this was an unnecessary waste of money on what he saw as an economic priority. Some Acronian humanist thinkers had also made their own reservations very publicly. The missonaries were not very well recieved - several Hudian leaders openly called for revolt. The Sufi saint Nasreddin Ali Faqir began a hunger strike with his disciples until the missionaries were expelled from the region. Riots had broken out in several cities as well, namely Husseinabad, Fatemabagh and Sufiyapara. It had erupted into a full scale revolt by the end of the year after the Masjid al-Kabir Massacre, which resulted in the death of Nasreddin and a few of his followers as well. Defected Hudian sepoys, zemindars and a majority of the population had openly dissented against the Administration. Several missionaries were killed, particularly the ones in the countryside who had not been under Acronian protection. The revolts had gone on for approximately two years, although they were ultimately quelled by the forces of privateers.

Lord Henry Doisneau de Villepin and several officials had been troubled by the happenings of the region, and decided to strive forward to ensure such would not occur again. The Administration filed a plea to the Crown to stop the program of missionaries, and worked to create favorable living conditions in the region which would help retain peace for the next century to come. Additionally, the Treaty of Speranza in 1702 would result in the sale of several Lyonian possessions in the region to the Acronian Far East Administration, increasing its dominance in South Serica, although Lyonia would retain its holdings in Faarah Island and the islands surrounding it. Ultimately, those would be sold off following the Treaty of Fiore in 1710, which would result in complete Acronian control over South Serica, with all previous Lyonian territories purchased by the Kingdom.

The stability of the region was once again affected in 1782, by the Great Fatemabagh Cyclone of 1782, which had resulted in the deaths of around 260,000 people and caused extensive property damage. Several ships full of vital imports were damaged beyond repair by the cyclone, but the worst effect would be the damage to surrounding farmland, leading to the 1782 Hudian Famine. The cyclone, along with floods and tidal waves, had completely decimated the agrarian economy in the region. Over a million had died over starvation, although several historians claim the number to be over 3 million.

Hudian soldiers fighting in GW1

It would not be until the beginning of the 20th century, after increased Acronian aid and several development policies, that the Far East Acronian Administration could claim to have restored the prosperity of the region. This prosperity and relative peace, however, was short-lived, after Acronia entered the First Great War. The Administration followed suit, and the Far East Acronian Army began its campaign in the Southern Front. ACRO BABE YOU START HERE.

The Great War had had a profound effect on the colonies of Acronia. The Far East Acronian Army led by Nurul Huda, had been victorious in the war, and were lauded by Acronian military officials. However, the army had also faced significant losses, and the region was rumbling with discontent over negligence during the war. Famous writers such as Rumana Adil, Vikram Das as well as Zafirul Haque had started to call for the independence of colonies under the Far East Administration in South Serica. Nurul Huda strongly affiliated with the South Serican independence movement. He wrote the Crimson Book during his time in the war, which detailed his own ideals regarding South Serica, and the establishment of a concrete Hudian identity. Countless individuals followed the Crimson Book, which is often considered the most sizeable treatise on the concept of a Hudian nation.

With the end of the war, there was a wave of anti-colonial sentiment in Acronia. King Alexander III, impressed by the valor of the Far East Acronian Administration's army, held the highly secretive Sheridan-Richelieu Conference to explore the possibility of emancipating several Acronian colonies. The meeting regarding South Serica wore on for several days, during which officials discussed the procedure for the region to transition into independence. Lionel Rafinesque, a foreign ministry official, suggested the Rafinesque Plan, in which the Administration would follow the borders that had been maintained in the region prior to the establishment of the Bahariyan Empire. This plan had taken several days of discussion, as historical maps, treaties and discussions had to be picked up from both the Administration and from within Acronia. In practice, the borders were loosely followed, with significant adjustments being made in regards to both religious and ethnic demographics in the region. In the end, the following states had been established: Huda, Riala, as well as Yetpa. King Alexander III declared the passage of the Rafinesque Plan around late 1916 in Husseinabad, during a tour of Acronian colonies. The emancipation was well received in all of the newly independent states. The Administration served as a transitional government till 1918, assisting in the establishment of post-independence borders. It also aided states in implementing their governments. Republics were established in both Riala and Huda, although neighboring Yetpa retained its monarchy due to the existence of its royal family, who had kept their titles even after colonization.

First Hudian Republic[edit]

Prime Minister Nurul Huda in a press conference

A federal parliamentary republic was established in Huda - the country was divided into several divisions, with Husseinabad as the capital division. The 1918 Hudian general elections were contested by the Lotus League, led by Nurul Huda, and the National Prosperity Front, led by Khandaker Aziz Islam. The Lotus League won the elections, taking 245 seats out of 300 in the Jatirghar. The parliamentary body appointed Fakruddin Gazi of the Lotus League as the first President. With his party holding the majority in parliament, Nurul Huda thus became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the country. President Gazi declared the establishment of the Hudian Republic on the 15th of September, 1918, during the inaugural meeting of the Jatirghar. (REFORM RIALA) The Constitution of Huda was proposed to parliament on the 22nd of September 1918, shortly after its inaugural meeting. Several amendments were carried out, particularly regarding checks and balances between the legislative, executive and judicial powers in government. The document was formally ratified and adopted on the 17th of November. It was fully put into effect from the 1st of January, 1919. The fundamental principles of the Hudian Republic were declared to be democracy, justice, nationalism and egalitarianism.

Prime Minister Huda carried out several reforms of economic nationalization and political liberalization. In its first term, the Huda administration made use of extensive expansionary fiscal policies as well as supply side policies to increase the capacity of the postcolonial economy. Key industries - namely energy, water, healthcare as well as several others - were nationalized by the government. The Hudian Army and Navy, equipped with generals and admirals experienced from the Great War, went through several overhauls, with the intention of increasing the hard power possessed by the country. The government had also established the Hudian Air Force shortly after its existence, having been donated 6 NAME by Granzery. The Hudian government maintained friendly ties with both neighbouring Yetpa and Riala, and talks for a Tripartite Alliance were underway.

The talks, led and strongly supported by Foreign Minister Abdul Khaled, had begun in 1921. They were held in Navirisan, the capital of Riala. All three states committed to the pact on February 14. However, the discussions were temporarily interrupted by the Second Ziadi Liberation War. Riots in favor of the Ziadi independence movement had erupted all over Riala after the reported forced disappearance of opposition leader Mubarak Mousavi, a member of the Ziadi National Party. Abdul Khaled, hoping to prevent the closure of these talks, telegrammed the Hudian government with a request to move the talks to Husseinabad. However, with news reports stating gross human rights violations by Rialan police forces against the protests, the government refused and ordered the immediate withdrawal of the Hudian Republic from these talks. A frustrated Foreign Minister Khaled barged out of the talks, calling it "a missed opportunity for multilateralism". Consequently, he resigned a few days after his arrival, along with a few other members of the Jatirghar who left the Lotus League, frustrated by the executive action taken by the Prime Minister.

Prime Minister Huda appointed Motiur Chowdhury to replace Khaled. Motiur Chowdhury, in comparison to his predecessor, disapproved of Rialan actions towards the Ziadi movement. His ministry initially proposed to mediate talks between the Rialan administration and the Ziadi protestors, but the refusal of the former to participate led to a deterioration between the relations of both countries. The Ziadi situation had devolved further, to a full fledged civil conflict in the Ziadi-majority areas of Riala. Prime Minister Huda and his cabinet resolved to intervene in the conflict, declaring so during his National Address on the eve of 15th of September - Establishment Day. Within the following week, Hudian Armed Forces proceeded to invade Riala. Despite heavily outnumbering its opponents, the Rialan Army, demoralized and fighting in two fronts, lost several key battles against the Hudians and found itself unable to quell the guerilla fighters in Ziadistan. Fighting wore on until early May 1922, by which time Hudian forces had entirely occupied modern-day Ziadistan. The Marwand Surrender was signed on the 8th of May by Gulmirza Ahmedzai, Narayan Singh Thakre and Osman Khan, resulting in the establishment of the Republic of Ziadistan. It would also decisively lead to the rise of Huda as a regional power over Riala.

The South Asian Regional Council in its inaugural 1923 meeting

The Rialan government, humiliated by their loss in Ziadistan and human rights abuse, faced a vote of no-confidence in parliament and was subsequently ousted. The successor government was led by Rahul Vijay Shrivastava, who would work well with both the Ziadistani and Hudian government to re-establish favorable relations and pursue a program of national reparation to combat post-war effects. The Hudian government faired no better - Nurul Huda was not elected for a second term in the 1923 Hudian general elections, which was won by Khandaker Aziz Islam and the NPF with 189 seats. The Islam government pursued economic liberalization policies to further bolster economic growth, although it also cut down on a few nationalized industries in order to spend conservatively. This move was wildly unpopular with the opposition, and gradually with the public once the aftershocks were felt in the economy. However, economic growth did rise during the NPF's tenure. Its biggest success, however, would be the South Serican Regional Council, established in order to prevent any conflict between the South Serican nations again, as well as to encourage regional harmony and peace. The NPF won again during the 1928 Hudian general elections, becoming the first party to win two elections in the country back-to-back. Its second tenure, however, was not as successful as the first, as it made more aggressive cuts to the government budget. Rumors of corruption began to rise, and were much discussed in the opposition benches. (REFORM RIALA) Nurul Huda led an aggressive election campaign during the 1933 Hudian general elections. The public's opinion towards the Ziadi intervention had now significantly improved, and consequently, the Lotus League was re-elected to power. Although several NPF cutbacks were reversed, the Lotus League decided to largley maintain its predecessor's liberal policies. Economic growth in Huda outpaced that of its regional neighbours, and although its army was not among the largest in the region, it was arguably the most well-equipped. The Lotus League won re-election in the 1938 Hudian general elections. With the advent of the second Great War, Prime Minister Huda chose not to intervene, and in the 1942 meeting, the entirety of the South Serican Regional Council voted to maintain neutrality throughout the war. Huda saw a quiet period, alongside its neighbours, of economic development, although the aftershocks of the Second Great War had had some economic consequences in the countries. The Lotus League won the 1943 Hudian general elections, maintaining its seats in parliament.

Following the Second Great War, Prime Minister Huda won again the 1948 Hudian general elections alongside the Lotus League. The administration made dramatic efforts to restore the Hudian economy in order to mitigate post-war effects and was largely successful. By this time, the economy had largely moved to the tertiary and secondary sectors, and the nation continued its trend of dramatic economic development. There were growing concerns, by both officials in the Lotus League and opposition benches, of the establishment of a cult personality around Nurul Huda and his extensive power in the Jatirghar. Due to this, the constitution saw several amendments during this fifth term, which imposed a maximum term limit of four for Prime Ministers - but not ruling parties. Prime Minister Huda, although hesitant at first, voted for the agreement itself, and thus, did not run for the 1953 Hudian general elections. He was replaced by Muqtadir Hasan Rajan as leader of the Lotus League. To this day, Prime Minister Nurul Huda remains the country's longest-serving Prime Minister. He would go on to serve as the OCN's secretary-general from 1954 till 1960.

An image of the aftermath of the 1952 Faarah earthquake

The Lotus League would win again in 1953. Rajan, who was mentored and handpicked by Nurul Huda, had largely led the government upholding the policies of his predecessor. It would come under heavy scrutiny, however, after its failure to respond adequately to the 1954 Faarah Earthquake, during which a 7.2 magnitude earthquake would hit Faarah Island. The quakes were felt as far away as Kharajan, and would cause extensive property damages and deaths in what was the nation's poorest division. The situation was further exacerbated by a slew of corruption scandals in several divisions. The worst of all, however, would be the Husseinabad Affair. XXX husseinabad affair with XXX company.

The opposition benches had started to call for a vote of no-confidence for Rajan, which had started to enjoy support from members of his own party. Despite facing immense pressure from party leaders to resing, Rajan attempted to stay in power, but ultimately was voted out during early 1957. The remainder of his term was carried out by Hamid Khandaker. Shamsul Huda, the son of Nurul Huda, mulled joining the Lotus League for the 1958 Hudian general elections. Although he did win his constituency, he was not permitted to lead the party by several Lotus League leaders, who did not desire to see the establishment of a political dynasty. The National Prosperity Front won a landslide election, winning 292 seats of 300 - the largest victory margin of any party in Hudian history. It was a very public embarassment for the Lotus League. The Lotus League would see several defections and breaks, which would weaken it immensely and lead it to being practically invisible during this time.

Recovering from the mistakes of the Rajan term, the National Prosperity Front had to cope with the beginning of the Red Autumn. Communist sentiments had begun to rise all across the region, especially in Huda. The movement had gained much traction among Hudians, particularly a frustrated youth who had to work in a sluggish economy. Several young servicemen had also become much attracted to the communist ideals in what had been a very hierarchical and corrupt armed forces. The Vastava Pact had also grown particularly powerful and popular worldwide during this time, further propagating communism in the Hudian Republic and the rest of South Serica. The Communist Party of Huda saw an extensive rise in its membership during this time, and began to organize several rallies and marches across Huda, campaigning for the establishment of a socialist republic. Around this time, ex-Prime Minister Nurul Huda would die in 1960, aged 74. (REFORM RIALA) Stasnovan and Gorbatovic elements in the nation would collaborate with conspirators in the military to execute the 1961 Red Mutiny. The mutiny resulted in the arrests of several members of the Jatirghar, particularly Prime Minister Jahangir Azad, as well as the deaths of several generals in the Hudian Armed Forces who had been directly combatting it. Nonetheless, it did enjoy support from several in the populace, as well as from member-states in the Vastava Pact. Khaled Rahman, a charismatic commander who had led the mutiny, declared the establishment of the Hudian Socialist Republic on 10 October, 1961.

Hudian Socialist Republic[edit]

Commander Khaled Rahman inspecting troops in Husseinabad

The Hudian Socialist Republic was not well recieved globally, and its violent accession drew criticism from states such as Acronius and Vazandia, who had been key partners of previous Hudian governments. However, it would be accepted into the Vastava Pact on the December 14, 1962. Ultimately, the Red Autumn had a significant effect on the geopolitical situation of South Serica. The South Serican Regional Council, then under Hudian leadership, was suspended after Huda had come under socialist rule. The Hudian Socialist Republic, meanwhile, drove forward several changes in other states. Its establishment gave rise to an insurgency in neighbouring Riala. Although aided extensively by the regime, the insurgents would fail to make any significant strides against the government. It would continue to persist until the early 2000s. Po Nagar would see a Hudian-aided communist coup around 1963. Additionally, the government would harbor several communist Yetpan dissidents, such as Ko Thuta and U Wunna, who had been fleeing from the country in fear of persecution from King Binyapati X whose edicts were aimed at eliminating communist dissent in the country. These dissidents were trained and mentored by the government, and Yetpan communists saw significant financial and military support from Huda. However, the most drastic action by the Hudian government would be the 1966 Invasion of Ziadistan. It drew international condemnation from most states and resulted in the imposition of several sanctions on the Republic and members of its regime. (REFORM RIALA) Despite its success in projecting a communist influence in South Serica - with the most of the region a part of the Vastava Pact by 1966 - the Hudian Socialist Republic had become immensely unpopular at home. It had poorly governed the economy, and inefficiences had resulted in a fall in the country's gross domestic product for the first time in 1967. This fact, however, was hidden away from the populace, with the Socialist Republic curbing press freedoms and making several inroads in controlling most information circulating in the nation. Additionally, it faced increasing pressure due to sanctions imposed by several states, which had further crippled the economy.

The inefficiences persisted further in economic redistribution, which had gradually been stifled by corrupt officials of the Communist Party of Huda, who had virtually taken up the entirety of the political sphere at the time. There was a high level of economic emigration at the time, consequently, with several Hudians pursuing careers in other states. The emigration had become so dire, that a point, the Khaled regime temporarily banned movement outside Huda. The Association for Hudian Democracy would be formed in 1968, and subsequently be banned by the regime immediately. The association consisted of several student and ex-Jatirghar parties, led by Shamsul Huda, who had evaded arrest in 1961. Despite being banned, the AHD would hold several covert meetings, with the intention of toppling the Hudian Socialist Republic, who recieved continual Stasnovan and Gorbatovic aid.

In order to limit public dissent, the Khaled regime passed the Discipline Ordinance which was intended to give the state more power to arrest protestors and shut down free press institutes. This was met with widespread disagreement throughout Huda, with protests commencing as early as January 1970. There have been reports of widespread human rights abuse as well as live firing on protestors, which only served to intensify the protests which had begun to spread across the country. Armed forces and policemen also gradually refused to serve the Hudian Socialist Republic as the movement grew larger and larger. The Storming of Husseinabad Central Jail in May 8 the next year freed several members of the Jatirghar, including Jahangir Khan. In the chaos of the storming, Shamsul Huda declared the restoration of the Hudian Republic. Throughout the next few weeks, Hudian protestors would seize control of key parts of the country. On May 30, protestors would surround the Jatirghar, where the remnants of the Khaled regime would surrender, including Khaled Rahman himself. He would subsequently be arrested and sentenced to lifetime imprisonment. Khaled

Current era[edit]

In the 1970 Hudian general elections, Jahangir Khan and the National Prosperity Front would win its mandate for another five years, although Shamsul Huda and the Lotus League would manage to retain 111 seats. The 1970 Hudian general elections would also introduce several other parties, such as the Justice Party (5 seats) and the Pragmatist Dal (16 seats). A few independent members of parliament would also win seats during this time. Khan and the National Prosperity Front would lead on the country, restoring it from the socialist era by liberalizing the market, with unprecedented bipartisan support.

Acronian troops fighting in the Yetpa War

The socialist republic in Ziadistan would also fall immediately after the re-establishment of the Hudian Republic, although the military junta in Po Nagar would remain. The Yetpa War had also begun in 1970, coinciding with the fall of the Socialist Republic and the general elections of the year. Enraged by the misrule of the King Binyapati, especially due to his draconian laws against political freedoms, a popular democratic front had grown in Yetpa. Tensions in the country eventually escalated in 1970, resulting in a civil war. Acronia, a close Hudian ally, had intervened in the conflict, and calls had begun to emerge from the Jatirghar for Huda to intervene as well, although these calls were dismissed by Prime Minister Khan.

The South Serican Regional Council was re-established after the Husseinabad Summit of 1971, with the inclusion of all South Serican states regardless of ideology. The council faced several overhauls during this time, turning into a much more complex and extensive organization than before; previously, it had simply been a platform for dialogue between South Serican states. The most significant question for the Council following its establishment would be whether or not it would intervene in the Yetpa War. The Council ultimately refused, simply suspending Yetpan membership until a conclusion was decided.

Shamsul Huda would step down as the chairman of the Lotus League for the 1975 Hudian general elections. Nonetheless, the Lotus League won a narrow majority of 155 seats, led by Iqbal Khan. Shamsul Huda would go on to establish Academy, sit on the board of directors for the International Educator's Committee as well as form the Hudian Developmental Organization. The Khan administration would continue to bolster economic growth, and grant essential state provisions for individuals who had been poorly affected by the ex-regime's governance. Huda would experience revolutionary economic growth under the Khan administration, and development projects all across the nation would significantly improve living standards. The state increased provisions for education, healthcare, energy, and other key services. The most sizeable geopolitical change, however, would be Huda's entry into the Entente pour la Défense d'États-Nations in 1977, which would trigger tensions and cause the region to divide into several blocs. In response to Huda's entry into EDEN, Ziadistan would join the Non-Aligned Pact, while Riala would join the Véragyőr Security Organization. Although the move into the ABCDE would be much lauded, and would define Hudian foreign policy for decades, critics say that it also increased apprehension in the region.

There would be a quiet period in South Serica of development and economic growth during the 70s. The Hudian tertiary sector grew significantly during this time. Industries such as education, healthcare, as well as tourism, had grown immensely popular. In the meanwhile, the Ziadistani and Rialan economy grew exponentially though export-based sales of consumer goods and apparel. Competition between both states had grown intense in this regard, as South Serica was dubbed as the 'capital of production in the early 90s. Yetpa and Po Nagar enjoyed flourishing ties, despite the challenges faced by the Vastava Pact at the time, and both states largely focused on consolidating internal security. Despite extensive economic growth and development, the political situation remained tense in the region, particularly due to the Yetpan situation. Huda would see a modernization and restructuring of its military during this period, as well as a significant change in its economy, education and healthcare sectors.

Politically speaking, the Lotus League would win its mandate again in 1980, although this time they were led by Mozammel Haque Tushar. The National Prosperity Front, however, would take back the Jatirghar in 1985. During this time, South Serican tensions would rise again. Although the Yetpa War had concluded in 1977, the People's Transitional Committee of Yetpa - a military junta appointed as the transitional government - had grown fiercly unpopular. The military had refused to step down, causing much public protest. The communist movement in Yetpa, which had once been strongly encouraged by the Hudian Socialist Republic, grew more and more popular during this time. The Crimson Revolution in 1986 would result in the toppling of the PTCY, and the rise of the Communist Party of Yetpa, led by first secretary Yarzar Zin. The rise of the Yetpan communist state caused much alarm in South Serica, but initiatives undertaken by the Regional Council prevented tensions from boiling over. The Hudian state would maintain a cautious policy with Yetpa. Yetpa would go on to form the a military and economic pact with Po Nagar, as a means to preserve regional power, as well as become an observor of the Vastava Pact. Back home, the Jatirghar would see political parties exchanging power frequently through the decade.

Prime Minister Fakhrul Gazi speaking to a journalist in 2005

In the 2000 Hudian general elections during which the National Prosperity Front's Fakhrul Gazi would be appointed Prime Minister. He would go on to break the streak of power exchanging between both political parties of the state. The great grandson of the first president, Fakhrul Gazi would dominate the political sphere for a majority of his term, enjoying the effects of policies implemented by predecessor administrations. He would be re-elected again in 2005, as well as 2010. It would be in his second and third term that he would encounter some of his most significant challenges. (REFORM RIALA) The Ziadistani Civil War would erupt in 2005, after Prime Minister Akhlaq Muhammad refused to step down amid popular demonstrations, despite not possessing a majority in parliament. Although supported by the military, opposition parties and the wider public refused to permit his incumbency, resulting in a full fledged civil war. This caused a significant inflow of Ziadi refugees in both Riala and Huda. Although the Hudian government did administer aid through the Caterpillar Corridor and accept refugees, it refused to intervene in the conflict. Riala also accepted several refugees, although this would significantly increase communal tensions. Dhananjay Singh, a populist leader and member of the Rialan Shakti Dal would come to power in 2007, following the resignation of Arunav Khanna after the infamous Chandrapur case, which involved the rape of a Rialan girl in the border town of Chandrapur by, reportedly, a Ziadi refugee. It would sway public sentiment against Ziadis in the country, and would lead to several riots and beatings. Dhananjay Singh called for the deportation of Ziadi refugees from the country, following which several ultimately ended up in the Hudian Republic.

The Organisation of the Congress of Nations would establish the Ziadistan Committee, headed by a young diplomat, Zaheer Abbas. Abbas and the committee would manage to broker a peace in Ziadistan, resulting in Akhlaq's deposition, although he was permitted to run in the subsequent elections, which he ultimately lost. Abbas' success made him particularly successful in Huda - and his popularity further ballooned when it was realized that he was in fact the grandson of Shamsul Huda. Although the success at Ziadistan improved the geopolitical situation, the Singh administration still remained hostile towards Ziadistan and Huda. It began to claim both the Caterpillar Corridor as well as the Farakkha Island as a part of its sovereignty, despite the fact that both territories had been under control of Huda since its establishment. The administration cited the borders of the Rialan Raj as legal evidence, but little has been done to pursue this, save for the Farakkha Incident. As Ziadistan entered yet another period of rebuilding following a devastating war, it was evident that the South Serican situation had only deteriorated during the Gazi administration.

The Yetpa and Po Nagar pact had remained strong, and both states maintained a strong communist influence. Yetpa would begin its Secular Revolution in 2011, which would lead to unprecedented human rights abuse within the country, as well as reported genocide, rape as well as extrajudicial killings by members of the communist party. The Singh administration would continue to maintain a very hostile stance with Huda, particularly over both the Farakkha and Caterpillar issues. There would also be several reports of violence against Muslims in Riala, particularly the remainder of the Ziadi refugees. In Ziadistan, an increasingly dominating military would limit political freedoms in the country, leading to the rise of an Islamist insurgency in 2012. Hudian inaction throughout this period was largely seized upon and discussed by critics. Despite criticism, Gazi would attempt to run for a fourth term in the 2015 Hudian general elections.

The Lotus League saw an immense change in party leadership. Zaheer Abbas would join and lead the party in 2010, changing the party extensively for the 2015 general elections. Abbas would lead the League to victory, seizing 279 seats and winning a sizeable amount of the popular vote. The Abbas administration oversaw several changes - particularly, the adoption of the International Academic Diploma into the Hudian curriculum, the re-modernization of the Hudian Armed Forces, as well as a more responsive foreign policy.

The Hudian government would ultimately place sanctions on Yetpa due to its human rights abuses, as well as on military officials in Ziadistan. It would also face the establishment of an Islamist insurgency, which had started to threaten the border. The Gazi administration had not maintained the security in the Corridor, and subsequently, it had become rife with insurgents and criminals who had used it as transit point. Abbas would return with a stronger mandate after the 2020 Hudian general elections, promising stricter action in the region against hostile entities. He ordered Operation Snakekiller shortly after his re-election, in 2021, to combat terrorist entities in the Hudian-Ziadi border, namely around the Caterpillar Corridor. To date, the government has remained engaged in the Operation, while dealing with Rialan protests over the increased military presence in the corridor. In 2020, Prime Minister Abbas had also launched the 2050 Vision a three-decade plan that defines much of Hudian policy today. (REFORM RIALA)

Geography[edit]

Huda is located in South Serica, bordered by Ziadistan, Yetpa and Riala. The biodiversity of the region means that Hudian geography varies depending on location. The eastern region, towards the borders of Yetpa, comprise of thick jungles, hills, and rivers, although it is also home to a significant amount of farm land which continue to grow in concentration towards the center. The northern region is home to the beginning of the Devendranath Range, home to some of the world's tallest mountains. As a result, snow is prevalent in the northern region, particularly during the winter, and consists of tundras which gradually fade into subtropical grassland as one comes towards the center. (REFORM OR NEGOTIATE) The northwestern region towards Ziadistan is considerably dryer, with a gradual change from grasslands to arid conditions, although these conditions are a lot more consistent past the border. The southwestern region also consists of sub-tropical grassland towards the Rialan broder. The center of the region consists of tropical grasslands, jungles, rivers and a generally coastal climate. However, heavy urban development schemes have meant the spread of agricultural and urban land. There are several tropical islands in Huda, mainly around the Faarah Division, as well as in the Bay of Husseinabad. There are also islands near the western coast.

Huda is home to several rivers, although the most prominent would be the Saptorshi River, which flows in from Riala, and stems out to several other rivers in Huda. The main stream, however, flows out to the Bay of Husseinabad. Several cities were built on the banks of the Saptorshi, particularly the capital city of Husseinabad. Some of the other notable rivers in Huda are the Bhuam and Merua, both of which are tributaries of the Satporshi river. The highest point in the country is Mount Indra, situated in the Devendranath Range, and its lowest point is the Varuna Trench situated in the outskirts of the Hudian Sea. The Mahaban, situated in the east of the country, is the world's largest mangrove forest and is a biodiversity hotspot.

Administrative geography[edit]

The Hudian Republic's 14 administrative divisions
The 14 divisions are as follows: Husseinabad, Greater Husseinabad, Fatemabagh, Sufiyapara, Aminabad, Uttar Aminabad, Kharajan, Khirsan, Kumarganj, Krishnapara, Mrijapur, Pathchali, Berakhal and Faarah. Every division is named after its divisional capital, except for Faarah (whose capital is Prarambho) and Greater Husseinabad (whose capital is Suchinagar).

(COMPLETE ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM) The Hudian policy on geographical administration came shortly after the formation of the country following its independence. The Divisions Act of 1918 was one of the first acts passed by the government. Taking into account the administrative policies of preceding states that governed the country, Huda was divided into 14 administrative divisions, including the capital division of Husseinabad. Each division except Husseinabad, subsequently, possesses 21 districts totalling to 273 districts.

These districts are divided into sub-districts, below which there exist village councils or municipal governments. The capital division of Husseinabad, however, is an exception, which is governed by the Husseinabad Municipal Corporation. It is further divided into 27 wards. Each division has its own Divisional Jatirghar, which is led by a Division Minister. These legislative bodies have a mandate within their own division and districts.

Each district is led by a District Commissioner appointed by the Divisional Jatirghar, who also possesses deputies who help administer sub-districts. Below that, there exist democratically elected village councils and municipal town governments. On the other hand, the Husseinabad Municipal Corporation elects a Chief Executive and a city council comprising of representatives from all 27 wards who manage the city.

Climate[edit]

Huda is a country with a very varied climate. The climate gradually changes to a tundra far north, and to a more arid climate towards the north-west. However, the dominant climate remains subtropical monsoon, which covers most of the southern and eastern part of the country. Due to the diversity of climate, it is difficult to state the average conditions for Huda over time, as the climate differs per region. However, most of Huda is characterized with heavy precipitation, varying temperatures per season, as well as vulnerability to natural climate disasters.

There are six seasons in Huda - spring (বসন্ত), summer (গ্রীষ্ম), monsoon (বর্ষা ), autumn (শরৎ), late autumn (হেমন্ত), and winter (শীত). Temperatures are hot and humid from late spring till early autumn, although the heat is alleviated to some extent by the monsoon, which sets in the tropical parts of the country, and seldom occur in the arid northwestern region. Temperatures start falling from the onset of autumn till early spring. To the north of the country, this is usually the time when snowfall occurs, although temperatures do not fall below 0 °C elsewhere. The lowest temperature recorded ever was in the northmostern settlement of the country, the village of Tusharpara which experienced a temperature of -14.2°C in 1868. The highest temperature ever recorded was in Kharajan with a temperature of 49.2 °C in 2006.

Rainfall is most intensive during the monsoon, especially in the southern regions. Husseinabad, the capital division, experiences annual rainfall averaging around 1,840 mm. In contrast, Kharajan is the dryest division, with annual rainfall averaging around 300 mm. There is a sharp drop of rainfall starting from the middle of autumn, and the dry season is most intense during late autumn, although it starts subsiding during winter. Rains are semi-regular during spring and summer. The monsoon alone accounts for a significant majority of rainfall in the country, and had been a significant cause of flooding during the 20th century, although government policy has prepared most of the country against heavy monsoons.

Tusharpara, one of the coldest places in the country.

Adding on to the rain, Huda is also susceptible to natural disasters. Cyclones are frequent on an annual basis, particularly during the monsoon. These cyclones generally build up in the Hudian Sea and often make landfall in the southern coastal regions of the country, of which Fatemabagh Division is the most afflicted. The most destructive cyclone was the Great Fatemabagh Cyclone of 1782, which caused significant property damage and killed 260,000 people. The most recent deadly earthquake was the 1954 Faarah earthquake, which caused $384 million worth of property damage and killed 6,829 people.

Due to the region's vulnerability to natural disasters, climate is an extremely important part of government policy. Throughout the course of the 20th century, urban settlements had fared poorly against the heavy rains, and as a result, it had been a priority of the government to adapt urban settlements to effectively make use of rainwater and prevent excess flooding. As a result, urban planning in Huda saw a drastic change in this period, in order to make an effort to adapt to the precipitation in the region. At the same time, the Faarah earthquake also led to a dramatic change in public policy, with the government scrambling to set up a program to make buildings in the country earthquake resistant. Through the aid of early warning systems, shelters, fortified buildings and other solutions, the government has also been able to respond adequately towards cyclone.

It is important to note, however, that Huda faces a significant challenge with the advent of climate change and rising sea levels. Most Hudian islands are in danger of inundation should sea levels continue to rise, as well as a few vulnerable coastal areas, particularly those in the Bay of Husseinabad and the Eastern Coast. In response to this, the government has undertaken several initiatives under the 2050 Vision, ranging from investing in sustainable coastal architecture to withstand sea level rises, to pumping sand in several islands to increase their altitudes. This operates in tandem with other policies taken to limit pollution levels and make the economy more sustainable, and forms the bulk of Hudian environmental policy under the 2050 Vision.

Flora and Fauna[edit]

As a home to several diverse ecosystems, Huda is a hotspot for flora and fauna. Around 38,000 species of plants have so far been discovered in Huda, of which 5,000 comprise of flowering plants. This variety can be attributed to the geographical diversity of the region. 2,000 of these species are endemic to South Serica. At the same time, Huda is also home to 68,000 species of animals. Mammals comprise a small percentage of this - the region is home to 810 mammal species. Several animals, much like plants, are endemic to South Serica. These numbers are spread widely across Huda, although they are also under threat due to widespread urbanisation as well as a past of unregulated poaching, although the latter practice has now come under regulation.

The Mahaban, a biodiversity hotspot, is home to a majority of species, particularly those unique to Huda. It is home to the Hudian tiger, which is the country's national animal, a charismatic megafauna, as well as one of the largest tiger species found worldwide. At the same time, the Mahaban is also home to the Miri dolphin, a species of river dolphin found to be swimming around the mangrove forest. Glasson's monkey is a rare species found across the world in mangrove forests, although it has a high concentration in the Mahaban. Of course, there are also a variety of unique non-mammal species foudn in the Mahaban, particularly insects, birds and fish.

Conditions are much more different in the north, towards the Devendranath Range. The Devendranath pheasant is an endemic species exclusive to Range, found in the lower reaches of most mountains in the range, with almost as much fame as the Hudian tiger. Snow leopards and other wildlife generally found in colder biomes are widespread in the range, although the concentration of such animals is usually at the very base area of the range, with populations thinning out at higher altitudes. The most common animal in the Devendranath Range is the mountain goat. The species of plants in the area are also much more different from those found in most of the rest of the country, as most plants otherwise work in the country's tropical temperatures. Of course, species, while varied, are not particularly numerous due to the adverse conditions of the region.

Towards Kharajan and Uttar Aminabad, weather conditions are much dryer and hotter. Particularly towards Ziadistan, the climate turns into semi-arid. This region is home to species such as the markhor, Sindh ibex and other animals. Camels are also widespread in the border, where they are used for transportation purposes in particularly hot climates. Animals are particularly vulnerable in this area, due to the complete lack of regulatory poaching practices prior to 2013. Due to the hostile nature of relations in the border, animals have also been attacked by border forces by accident. Domestication of animals is outlawed in the Caterpillar Corridor, where they had previously been used as a way to smuggle goods in and out of the country.

Huda is also home to very diverse aquatic flora and fauna. Home to 17 major islands, several minor islands, and countless rivers, the aquatic flora and fauna in the country can be divided into both freshwater and saltwater. The Hudian Sea has a striking variety of animals, ranging from great predators like the great white shark and common fish like the mahi-mahi. Similarly, the country's rivers are also home to animals such as the Miri dolphin as well as the national fish, the illish. Seafood is a primary part of Hudian cuisine, and so the country has an extensive albeit regulated fishing sector.

Politics and government[edit]

For most of its existence, Huda has largely been a two-party state. The Lotus League, a center-left party, have dominated Hudian politics alongside its rival National Prosperity Front, which is a center-right party. Of the 20 general elections that have occurred, the Lotus League has won 11, while the National Prosperity Front has won 10. Nonetheless, there is a precedent of independent candidates, as well as third parties, such as the Pragmatist Dal and Justice Party. Although the national government is essentially dominated by a two-party system, much of the divisional government sees prominent activity among regional and third parties.

Despite its reputation as a generally upstanding democracy, it has also faced criticism regarding its political situation. Leaders of both the NPF and Lotus League have often been criticized for banking on establishing "cults of personality" as a campaigning method. This criticism was particularly placed on the incumbent President Zaheer Abbas and his predecessor ex-President Fakhrul Gazi, both of whom have familial roots tracing back to the establishment of the country. Political dynasticism is a widespread problem in the political system, but it is one that has generally been left unsolved. (ADD MORE POLITICAL PROBLEMS) Political violence is generally rare and discouraged in the country. However, there were significant spikes of it during the rule of the Khaled Regime. It also occurs today, to some extent, during hartals, although such instances are rare and are dealt with by the police. The country itself, nonetheless, has a strong culture of political protests ranging from hartals to peaceful rallies, often undertaken by citizens desiring to put forward their agitations or by opposing political parties. One of the most recent hartals carried out was the 2019 Anti-Mobilization Hartal, a hartal undertaken by the National Prosperity Front after it had lost the vote to prevent the mobilization of Hudian troops in the Caterpillar Corridor.

The current political climate is uneasy, as Huda faces numerous challenges in the region, particularly from an aggressive Rialan administration, an unfolding human rights crisis in Yetpa, as well as a rising tensions in Ziadistan. At home, regional parties siding with either the NPF or the Lotus League dominate the regional divisions, while nationally, the Lotus League continues to be led by Prime Minister Zaheer Abbas. They are opposed by the National Prosperity Front, led by Fakhrul Gazi.

Government[edit]

The Jatirghar Bhaban, where the Jatirghar convenes

Huda is a unicameral parliamentary democracy. The supreme legislative body of the country is the Jatirghar, comprising of 300 parliamentarians, elected from 273 Hudian districts and 27 wards in the capital. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party in the Jatirghar, and opposing him is the Leader of the Opposition. There is also a Speaker of the Jatirghar, who moderates the sessions and is also a tiebreaker appointed by the parliament. The speaker and president are appointed by the parliament shortly after the elections - these appointments are among the first acts of every administrational term. Every member of the Jatirghar maintains their post for a term of five years. The speaker is appointed by government parties, while the deputy speaker is appointed by the opposition, in order to prevent the government from possessing too much power on the parliament floor.

However, the entirety of the Jatirghar generally suspends itself six months prior to the end of term for elections. Following the suspension, the appointed President leads a de facto caretaker government in charge of handling general elections. After the general elections, the President invites the leader of the ruling party to take over as Prime Minister. The cycle then continues, with the appointment (or re-appointment) of the speaker, deputy speaker and President. Although the President hypothetically has powers to dismiss the Jatirghar completely during this suspension period, it will likely face opposition from the judiciary system as well as civil protest, and hence, has not happened before.

Otherwise, the President has a largely ceremonial role, focusing on meeting state dignitaries, addressing the parliament occassionally, as well as representing the country in conventions and conferences. The President also takes over the government in cases when the Jatirghar is suspended, such as prior to elections, or during the interim period when there is no Prime Minister of the country, until the majority party selects a replacement. The President possesses executive powers, and has the ability to overturn a Jatirghar vote, although this veto can be dismissed by the Jatirghar if it votes unanimously. The President is also a permanent member of emergency committees alongside the Prime Minister. The deputy of the President, by default, is the speaker of the government.

The judiciary system is led by the Supreme Court of Huda, who is led by a chief justice. The judiciary system is responsible for enforcing laws proposed and passed by the Jatirghar and approved by the President. Under the Supreme Court, there exists a High Court and Appellate Court for every division of the country. The Chief Justice is appointed from the existing justices for what is a lifetime role by the Jatirghar. The same applies for justices, who are appointed by the Jatirghar for a lifetime post. The Supreme Court appoints individuals for both the High Court and Appellate Court for each division. Most of the judiciary structure is based on common law, and is heavily influenced by Acronian rule of common law. All Hudian law is mandated as secular in the constitution and remains as such. The entirety of Hudian law is filed under the Charter of the Hudian Republic, which is maintained and updated with every law enforced since the establishment of the Hudian Republic, and any laws still in effect from predecessor states.

In the divisional level, each division has a Divisional Jatirghar, led by a Division Minister, who is subordinate to the central government. The Divisional Jatirghars have 21 seats each, one for each district. Below that, there exist district commissioners, appointed by each Divisional Jatirghar, who administer each district. The district commissioners are a part of the Hudian Civil Services, who also help assist the central government in administration. Village councils and municipalities report to the district commissioners. These are democratic institutions that administer settlements on behalf of the commissioners. A notable exception is the Husseinabad Division, which is led by the Husseinabad Municipal Corporation. The Corporation is led by an elected Chief Executive and a Municipal Board consisting of 27 board members for each of the 27 wards in the city. The

Military[edit]

The Hudian Armed Forces is the military arm of the Hudian Republic. It consists of the Hudian Air Force, the Hudian Army, the Hudian Navy, the Hudian Guard and the Hudian Special Operations Command. The commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces is the Prime Minister, assisted in that capacity by the defense minister and the chief of staff. In total, the Hudian Armed Forces numbers to approximately 372,000 active personnel and 58,000 reserve personnel. The budget of the armed forces, in total, is 38.01 billion USD, a total of 2.1% of the national gross domestic product. The military's tasks, while primarily defensive, also extend to offensive roles as well as to support the country during humanitarian and security emergencies.

The Hudian Armed Forces, and their existing structure, is heavily adapted from its predecessor body, the Acronian Far East Army. The Army is the oldest part of the armed forces, as well as the largest, followed closely by the navy and then the air force. In South Serica, the Hudian Republic possesses the largest navy and air force, but it has the third largest army, behind the Rialan Army and the Yetpan People's Army. The Armed Forces have seen well over a century's worth of experience - beginning with the Hudian intervention in the Second Ziadi Liberation War, not long after the establishment of the Armed Forces. The Armed Forces have also intervened in the Second Great War, the Qauwan War, XXX, and the XXX.

Primarily, the armed forces are supplied by member states of the ABC Defense Entente. Of these states, the largest suppliers for the Hudian Armed Forces are Acronia, Apelia and Odentia. However, Huda also has a few major non-EDEN defense partners, such as Granzery and Zolevskoy. Following the ascension of the Lotus League in 2013, the armed forces undertook a major five year plan of weapon procurements, phasing out old equipment which had been in use since the era of the Hudian Socialist Republic. The military industry also experienced a boost around this time, with the establishment of several corporations under the government in charge of producing license variants of military equipment used by the armed forces. Vision 2030 also anticipates these corporations producing indigenous machinery for forces to use and for export. Several military training exercises have also been in place to train forces to fight under rapidly changing conditions and using modern weaponry.

Huda is among the largest contributors to the Template:Ocn's peacekeeping force, with a total of 8,290 troops currently participating in X missions. Currently, the Hudian Armed Forces are also engaged in Operation Snakekiller, a military operation against insurgents around the Hudian-Ziadi border. Overseas, Huda has deployed 5,500 soldiers in Antitanca stationed in X airbase and Airbase. As a member of EDEN, the Hudian Armed Forces also cooperate frequently with co-member states in regards to defense.

Foreign relations[edit]

Huda is a member of several intergovernmental organizations and has also been a part of countless multilateral agreements. The Hudian Republic helped establish the South Serican Regional Council in 1925 and has remained its member since its creation. It joined the Organisation of the Council of Nations following the end of the Second Great War, alongside other participants of the war. Nurul Huda, the first Prime Minister of the country, served as the Secretary-General of the OCN from 1954 till 1959. Huda is also the largest contributor to the OCN Peacekeeping Force, and is home to the OCN Office at Husseinabad.

The Hudian Republic joined the Entente pour la Défense d'États-Nations in 1977, and as such, is closely allied with its member states, particularly Acronia, Odentia, Apelia as well as Antitanca. However, Huda has also enjoyed generally close relations with non-EDEN states - this is attributed to its prior status as a non-aligned nation. Huda generally shares good ties with most countries on the basis of economic cooperation and similar governmental values. Regionally, there has been a devolution of Hudian relations with its neighbours - it had enjoyed good ties with both Ziadistan and Riala during the 20th century, although relations have been cold following the Ziadistani Civil War. Hudian-Yetpan relations have been practically non-existant following the Yetpan Secular Revolution, following which the Hudian Republic degraded its ties with both Yetpa and Po Nagar. However, shared cultural values and ties have prevented a complete shutdown of ties between Huda and the rest of South Serica.

Development is a significant part of Hudian foreign policy. Several Hudian non-governmental organisations are working in countless deveolpment projects overseas, especially the Hudian Developmental Organization. The Hudian government is also currently supporting investment programmes abroad, and as such, heavily cooperates with benefiting states. The International Academic Diploma program, created out of the Hudian Academic Diploma, is also widely propagated in many states, allowing for Huda to cooperate with states in regards to educational dialogue.

Economy[edit]

Huda has the 17th largest nominal GDP in the world, as well as the 18th largest GDP per capita. Its human developmental index is 0.812, and thus it can be described as a "highly developed country". Huda has scored a Gini index of 26.1, below the world average of 29.1. Ultimately, the Huda can be best described as a more economically developed country. To date, it is the most developed economy in South Serica, outranking all of its neighbours in several measures of standards of living. Huda's most important trading partners are Acronius, Apelia and Gorbatov.

The Hudian Republic has a market economy, although there are some sectors under government control, particularly natural monopolies - the rail industry and healthcare industry. Other than control of such sectors, the Hudian government makes use of its fiscal, monetary and supply side policies to maintain government goals. In this regard, Huda has a 3.8% unemployment rate and a 2.3% inflation rate, below its threshold of 3% for inflation. Additionally, the economic growth for the country has come to 2.1% in the fiscal year 2018-2019.

Following its establishment, the Hudian economy had made significant use of supply side policies and developmental aid to push forward the nation's economic growth. Huda would enjoy an extremely high economic growth rate during the interwar period, although growth would be sluggish again in the aftermath of the Second Great War and the 1954 Faarah Earthquake. However, following administrations had made significant efforts to pick up economic growth following these crises, and Huda had been the fastest growing economy during this time. Economic growth stabilized by the 21st century, averaging around 2.3 to 2.1% per year. The Hudian government has placed a special emphasis on development and innovation in this regard. Sadeque Rahman, ex-chief of the Hudian Developmental Organisation, pioneered the idea of microcredit while working in the field in Ziadistan, and these concepts among others have been applied at a grassroots level in Huda.

Of course, the Hudian Republic does face a number of economic challenges. Due to the frequency of natural disasters, the Hudian economy and infrastructure are especially prone to damage. This was exemplified by the 1954 Faarah Earthquake, which had caused significant damage to the Hudian economy. Frequent cyclones in the region have also hampered economic growth, although decades of occurences have caused the government to employ a variety of policies to mitigate this damage. Huda is also one of the nations that face a significant challenge due to climate change, which will likely result in the inundation of vulnerable coastal areas and islands, which power the agriculture and tourism sectors of the country, and also house key urban areas that drive the nation's economy.

The Hudian economy has a strong reliance of the tertiary sector, which is the largest in terms of both output and employment, followed by the secondary and primary sector. Its largest industries in the tertiary consist of the tourism, education, banking, and telecommunications. Production of industrial machinery, pharmaceuticals and automotives dominate the secondary sector, while the food industry as well as mining industry make up most of the primary sector.

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture plays an important role in Huda. It sufficiently provides for a majority of food needs in the country, employing 2.2% of the entire population and accounting for 3% of the total gross domestic product. Most farm activity occurs in the central and eastern parts of the country which consist of fertile plains and jungles. The industry today is highly capital intensive and makes use of a variety of machinery. 60% of agricultural output consists of crops, whereas 40% consist of livestock. Huda is the largest exporter of rice, mangoes and jackfruit worldwide, and is also among the largest producers of beef and other livestock. Accounting for poor weather conditions, the government often intervenes in the agricultural sector, through the use of subsidies and stockpiling.

The country also has seen a rise in farmed fish practices - Huda is the largest exporter of the Hilsa fish, as well as other freshwater fish. Government regulation to prevent illegal fishing in the past resulted in a shift of fish exports from wild fish to farmed fish. Despite such changes in the market, urbanization and other such activities have caused the agricultural industry to shrink gradually, and the sector's contribution to both GDP and employment has slowly started to fall, despite government training programs and subsidy measures.

Education[edit]

Education is among the largest sectors in Huda. Ever since its establishment, the Hudian Republic has been among the many nations propelling the advancement of education. The International Educator's Committee, a {{wpl|non-profit]} educational organization would be formed in the aftermath of the Second Great War by Dr. Liaquat Fateh Ali Khan, a renowned educator. The IEC would go on to cooperate with the government to establish the National Examination Board, drawing Hudian institutions away from the Acronian curriculum. The success of the NEB resulted in the creation of the International Examination Board. Both of these curriculums had been used in tandem in Huda until the proposition of the International Academic Diploma in 1977. The International Academic Diploma, proposed by the Committee, would revolutionize the Hudian educational sector, and would be adopted by several schools worldwide. The IAD, as well as its preceding IEB continue to remain key parts of the sector and account for a significant amount of its exports.

The Hudian government also makes use of an accreditation system, in collaboration with the International Educator's Committee to maintain the quality of schools nationwide. Schools that fail to meet the threshold, should they be public, are generally shut-down. This is not the same case for private schools, who generally have a more forgiving threshold, but the penalty is the same for such schools. There are 2,050 private K-12 schools in Huda as of 2020, educating 483,000 pupils daily, while there are 30,350 schools funded by the government educating remaining pupils. Under the Vision 2050, the Hudian government has committed to adopt the International Academic Diploma as its universal curriculum across all schools. A significant majority of private K-12 schools have already adopted the curriculum. Prior to this, most government schools had made use of the National Examination Board whereas private schools had adopted the International Examination Board.

Huda is home to several elite schools, although the most renowned would be Academy @ Huda - first established in 1978 by Shamsul Huda, Academy @ Huda was the first of an international group of schools formed with the mission of educating, enlightening and thus empowering students to work for a prosperous and peaceful future. Academy @ Huda is located in the Sufiyapara Division. Academy institutions are exclusively for students attempting to complete the IAD-A.

Huda is also home to several prolific universities. The University of Husseinabad is the oldest university in Huda, continuously operating for 971 years so far, as well as its most reputed. Although the university does recieve government funding, it is governed by itself and as such is not under government control. The University regularly ranks among the world's best, alongside several other universites. Additionally, there are several state-run institutes, such as the Hudian Science and Technology Academies.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism accounts for a significant amount of Hudian gross domestic product, and it is one of the largest industries in the tertiary sector. Tourism is focused significantly on the Faarah Division and its islands, although the Berakhal Division - home of the Mahaban - as well as the Uttar Aminabad Division - home of the Devendranath Range - also see a high amount of tourists. In 2019 alone, the Hudian Republic hosted 76 million tourists, among the highest in the world. Tourism not only accounts for 6.9% of the economic output of the country, but it is also a significant driver of the country's exported services.

The Faarah Division is widely visited during the summer, due to its beaches and temperate weather. Several resorts are located around the island, and tourists often go for activities such as scuba diving as well as snorkeling. Other than activities based around the coast, the islands are also home to a variety of historical builings, such as Lyonian architecture in Prarambho which can be traced all the way back to the 16th century. Nightlife is also a significant aspect of tourism in the Faarah Division. As such, the Division is often visited by young tourists such as students.

The Mahaban also sees a large number of tourists, although very few generally venture deep into the forest. The government restricted access to the forest during the monsoon season after the 2017 Mahaban emergency, during which several tourists had been stranded after torrential raining and flooding in the mangrove forest. Most tourists visit the Mahaban for natural sightseeing, as well as to see a variety of flora and fauna unique to the forest. Government regulations have also prevented the construction of resorts nearby the Mahaban, and as such, most tourists often rent homestays or cottages near the forest.

The Devendranath Range is often visited during the summer as well, due to the fact that conditions during the winter tend to be adverse and highly dangerous for those intending to trek around the range. There are a few resorts near the Range, although these are spread far apart from one another. Guides and homestays, much like in the Mahaban, help propel tourism in and around the Devendranath Range. The government often regulates treks around the peak season due to the possibilities of crowding around the range, which often causes unnecessary deaths.

Other than these aforementioned places, other divisions such as Sufiyapara Division and Fatemabagh Division often get visited on the grounds of historical sightseeing as well as amusement. Arts tourism and Template:Health tourism often attract travellers towards Husseinabad, which is home to a plethora of museums and galleries, and is also the center of the country's healthcare apparatus.

Transport, energy and infrastructure[edit]

Transportation fuels a significant part of the Hudian economy. As a riverene country, the maritime sector sees much importance. Huda possesses among the most number of navigable waterways in the world, which allows for significant use of ships within the country for travel and trade. Fatemabagh possesses the largest port of the country, in terms of the volume of ships and trade every year, followed closely by Husseinabad and Fatemabagh.

In the aviation industry, Mamac holds a dominant share of the market as a producer of passenger aircraft, avionics, and other products. It is among the largest companies in the country as well and holds a key role in its exports. Other than that, the Hudian airline industry consists of several local airlines engaged in fierce competition. The largest of these airlines are Air Huda, the flag carrier, and Tigerlines, among the largest budget airlines in the world. Although aviation is a significantly large and fast-growing sector, intra-national transport is primarily focused on rail currently.

As a part of infrastructural plans dating to the first term of the Gazi government, most of the country is connected through railways under the HudaRail, the state-owned corporation in charge of the rail sector. The country mostly makes use of electric-powered high-speed rail, which travel in inter-city routes throughout the country. Several cities, especially Husseinabad, also utilize underground rapid transit systems alongside light rail systems in order to facilitate swift city commute.

Road connectivity has been continuously improved and is rigorously regulated by the government. The country is connected by a network of countless high speed highways in what is known as the Hudian Highways. Roads, especially in urban centers, are heavily regulated. In the past, particularly in the late 90s, the country experienced several road accidents which highlighted the lack of safety in roads across the country, forcing the government to undertake strict action against speeding and other driving malpractices.

Currently, Huda is primarily reliant on nuclear energy, and as such, is also the lowest carbon-emitting country in South Serica. 67% of the country's energy comes from nuclear power, while the remainder makes use of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. However, in line with Vision 2030, the country's dependence on fossil fuels is expected to shrink from 28% to less than 10% by the end of the decade, with the introduction of several renewable power sources, such as hydropower and solar energy.

Science and technology[edit]

Huda has had a history of being devoted to the progression of science and technology worldwide. During the eras of the Hudian Sultanate as well as the Bahariyan Empire, the region was a hub of learning. Several scientific advances were made by Hudians, such as the Hudian polymath Lafari, who made significant advances in [[Wikipedia:mathematics]} and the natural sciences during the peak of the Hudian Sultanate. Other notable scientists during this era and beyond include ibn Mukhtar, al-Jameel as well as al-Zirabi all contributed to science and technology during the Hudian Golden Age. Bahariyan rule also did enjoy scientific progression through individuals such as Suleiman ibn Farabi and Jamal ibn Mustakim. Following the establishment of the Far East Acronian administration, Acronian technology and scientific theory was introduced to people in the region, further expanding its role in Hudian society. Following independence, Huda has played a dramatic role in the global progression of science and technology. The Hudian government allocates approximately 2.9% of its gross domestic product towards research and development spending, amounting to $52.49 billion last year. A significant proportion of this funding is often allocated towards educational institutions, research groups and firms. Remaining funds are often allocated to any government-run programs.

Since its inception around 1919, when it accepted a tender to help produce parts for the Hudian Air Force's NAME, the aviation corporation Mamac has been at the forefront of technological advancement in the sector. While initially its focus was largely in the production of parts of aircraft, it began large scale production of aircraft in 1921, although these were mainly licensed aircraft for the armed forces or a few civilian prototypes. Its civilian wing made significant breakthroughs in the early 1930s, with the production of the MPC-1. Subsequently, several more passenger aircraft models were produced, such as the MPC-2 and MPC-3. Following the Second Great War, Mamac produced one of the first ever successful jetliners, with the MJL-1000. The company chose to specialize in short to medium haul airliner production, following which resulted in the production of MJL-1200, MJL-1300, MJL-1400, MJL-1500 and most recently, the MJL-2000 and MJL-2100. As for the military division, it produced close air support and trainer aircraft such as the HF-1 "Tadpole" and HF-2 "Salamander".

Additionally, the Hudian information technology sector has also been instrumental in the field of science and technology. Several startups were established following the expansion of the world wide web, such as LafarE, which created one of the world's most popular search engines, and has since diversified into various technological sectors such as the production of devices like laptops as well as operating systems. The country is also home to some of the largest tech outsourcing firms, which is centered around Khirsan. There is a significant Hudian presence in the games industry, although these mainly comprise of a large group of indie game producers as well as a few AAA video game production companies.

Although the entirety of the Hudian healthcare system is under government control and provision, there are several research-based private labs who operate in cooperation with the government. Firms such as Bose Sciences have been instrumental in the development of several drugs, in particular, antiviral drugs. Such private labaratories have seen significant growth and investment recently, and have been working closely with the Hudian Ministry of Health's Office of Disease and Epidemic Contorl ever since. Furthermore, several institutions such as Hudian Science and Technology Academies as well as the University of Husseinabad provide several research findings towards biotechnology as well.

Demographics

As of 2019, the population in the Hudian Republic was 54,392,941 and a population density of 62.41 people per square kilometer. This makes it the 24th most populous country in the world. For the past decade, the country has maintained an average 0.9% population growth rate, although the government has attempted to increase growth rates through a variety of pro-natalist policies.

Huda had among the highest population growth rates in the world with other colonies in South Serica under the Acronian Far East Administration during the 19th century. However, this growth rate was minorly disrupted following the beginning of the Great War, during which countless Hudians were conscripted into the Far East Acronian Army. Growth rates saw a significant decline during this period, and the decline persisted well into the mid-20s, due to the Ziadistani Liberation War, which would take place only a few years after the Great War.

However, the population growth rate would rise following the Second Great War, and would continue to rise, although the the development of the country, as well as the spread of contraception and family planning services resulted in a fall in birth rates. 21st century administrations have so far advocated for pro-natalist policies in an effort to further bolster national growth, and such policies are maintained under the Vision 2030 of the Abbas administration.

Huda is a largely ethnically homogenous country, with well over 81.2% of the population identifying as Bengali. Bengalis have dominated politics and society in the region since antiquity, although with the passage of time and government legislation, there has been a rise in minority engagement throughout the country. Tribal groups constitute 7.8% of the national population, mainly concentrated near the Hudian-Ziadi border as well as the Hudian-Yetpan border. There have been allegiations of neglect and a lack of support by the government towards tribal groups, which have yet to be answered by any Hudian administration. Additionally, Huda is home to a significant amount of Rialis, who are generally economic migrants, although there has been an increase in the migration of Muslim asylum-seekers in the 21st century.

There is also a small minority of Ziadis, who are either descendants of refugees from the Ziadi Liberation War or economic migrants. Following the establishment of the communist government in Yetpa, Huda has also housed a large number of Yetpan asylum-seekers. However, the most significant flow of migration from Yetpa has occurred following the beginning of the Secular Revolution. Since then, Huda has also accepted a majority of Yetpan refugees.

There is a significant amount of Hudian diaspora worldwide, concentrated particularly in Vesperia and Aestia. Acronia is home to a majority of Hudians, many of whom migrated during the colonial period, or served in the Far East Acronian Administration. Many Hudians who fought in the Great War also settled where they were stationed, resulting in the establishment of sizeable Hudian populations in Aestia. Remaining members of the diaspora are generally economic migrants who generally migrated during the 20th century, although several are also political asylum seekers who fled the country following the establishment of the Hudian Socialist Republic. Additionally, supporters of the Socialist Republic, fearing retribution, fled to various socialist nations, particularly towards Stasnov and Gorbatov. In a regional context, there is a small minority of Hudian expatriates in neighboring countries, often serving as executives in multinational companies or local companies.

Urban centres

Currently, 80.7% of all Hudians live in its largest urban centres. The remaining population is generally spread across the countryside, in large towns, villages and other settlements. Hudian cities are governed by a city corporation, which elects a chief executive and a municipal board. Smaller settlements, such as towns, have mayoralties, while villages (the smallest settlement to have a governing institution) possess village councils.

Religion

Religion in Huda
Religion Percent (%)
Islam
82.5%
Hinduism
7.5%
Christianity
6%
Sikhism
2%
Atheism
1%
Other
1%

Islam is the largest religion in Huda. The religion was first introduced to Huda around the middle of the 7th century by wealthy Aestian Sufi merchants, and spread exponentially in the decades to follow. After the establishment of the Hudian Sultanate in 702, there was a significant rise in the persecution of Buddhist and Hindu believers, particularly during the wars against neighboring kingdoms that occurred in the following decades. In fear of facing further oppression, countless subjects of the Sultanate converted to Islam, allowing it to rise and become the dominant religion.

Following the establishment of the Bahariyan Empire, most Emperors adopted a policy of religious tolerance, which allowed for the resurfacing of various religions in the heartland of the Empire. However, the Empire would ultimately remain an Islamic stronghold, although minority religions, particularly Sikhism would be nurtured during this period. The Far East Acronian Administration would contribute towards the introduction of Christianity in the region, often dispatching missionaries. Although resisted frequently by colonial subjects, these initiatives were ultimately successful, and Christianity outgrew established minority religions such as Buddhism and Sikhism. Buddhism, once a dominant religion, would practically be non-existent by the early 20th century.

Throughout the 20th and early 21st century, religious demographics have largely remained the same, although there has been a gradual trend towards atheism, particularly following the establishment of the Hudian Socialist Republic, which attempted to present itself as an atheist state prior to its fall. The present Hudian government has maintained itself as a secular body, refusing to permit any religious law to influence the state of government. Secularism is regarded as a fundamental tenet of the Hudian state, and is engraved in its constitution.

Language

Prior to the establishment of the Hudian Sultanate, Sanskrit was the most popular language, mostly used by educated members of the regional kingdoms for matters of communication. Once the Hudian Sultanate had become the dominant power in the region, it advocated for the spread of Bengali as the lingua franca of the region, with significant Arabic and Persian influence. Bengali was propagated as a tool of Hudian culture throughout its existence, and the Bahariyan Empire also advocated for its usage in Riala. Works of literature, science and politics were written entirely in Bengali, to the point where Sanskrit had essentially become a non-existent language.

However, Hindi was maintained in the western parts of the Empire as a popular language, especially used by religious minorities as a form of resistance against the ruling Muslim class. The Empire did little to stop this, and Hindi remains a minority language today, mainly used by the Riali community in the nation. Bengali remains the dominant language and is one of the two official languages of the country. The other language, French was introduced by the Far East Acronian Administration, and was used for all administrative purposes until the establishment of the Hudian Republic in 1918. Educational institutions, government institutions and other institutions are expected to use both Bengali and French as the medium for communication today.

Health and education

Currently, Huda has a literacy rate of 99%, following significant strides taken by the government in the educational sector for decades. Most Hudians possess at least a high school degree, and state laws make it mandatory for citizens to go through schooling till at least the high school level. Approximately 37% possess some type of bachelor-level degree. The average life expectancy of a Hudian at birth is roughly 79.21 years for males and 81.3 years for females.

The Hudian government entirely controls the healthcare sector, providing universal standardized healthcare for all citizens. The Hudian Ministry of Healthcare operates the State Facility for Health, the collective institutions which are operated under the government. Healthcare from informal providers is strictly prohibited by the law, although in rural areas, private homeopathy doctors and other informal medical practitioners are quite popular, which has been a significant cause of malpractice in the region. There are several other bodies and committees under the Ministry's control, such as the Office of Disease and Epidemic Control.

The Hudian education system is three-tiered, consisting of the primary (from preschool to the fifth grade|mathematics]} and the natural sciences during the peak of the Hudian Sultanate. Other notable scientists during this era and beyond include ibn Mukhtar, al-Jameel as well as al-Zirabi all contributed to science and technology during the Hudian Golden Age. Bahariyan rule also did enjoy scientific progression through individuals such as Suleiman ibn Farabi and Jamal ibn Mustakim. Following the establishment of the Far East Acronian administration, Acronian technology and scientific theory was introduced to people in the region, further expanding its role in Hudian society. Following independence, Huda has played a dramatic role in the global progression of science and technology. The Hudian government allocates approximately 2.9% of its gross domestic product towards research and development spending, amounting to $52.49 billion last year. A significant proportion of this funding is often allocated towards educational institutions, research groups and firms. Remaining funds are often allocated to any government-run programs.

Since its inception around 1919, when it accepted a tender to help produce parts for the Hudian Air Force's NAME, the aviation corporation Mamac has been at the forefront of technological advancement in the sector. While initially its focus was largely in the production of parts of aircraft, it began large scale production of aircraft in 1921, although these were mainly licensed aircraft for the armed forces or a few civilian prototypes. Its civilian wing made significant breakthroughs in the early 1930s, with the production of the MPC-1. Subsequently, several more passenger aircraft models were produced, such as the MPC-2 and MPC-3. Following the Second Great War, Mamac produced one of the first ever successful jetliners, with the MJL-1000. The company chose to specialize in short to medium haul airliner production, following which resulted in the production of MJL-1200, MJL-1300, MJL-1400, MJL-1500 and most recently, the MJL-2000 and MJL-2100. As for the military division, it produced close air support and trainer aircraft such as the HF-1 "Tadpole" and HF-2 "Salamander".

Additionally, the Hudian information technology sector has also been instrumental in the field of science and technology. Several startups were established following the expansion of the world wide web, such as LafarE, which created one of the world's most popular search engines, and has since diversified into various technological sectors such as the production of devices like laptops as well as operating systems. The country is also home to some of the largest tech outsourcing firms, which is centered around Khirsan. There is a significant Hudian presence in the games industry, although these mainly comprise of a large group of indie game producers as well as a few AAA video game production companies.

Although the entirety of the Hudian healthcare system is under government control and provision, there are several research-based private labs who operate in cooperation with the government. Firms such as Bose Sciences have been instrumental in the development of several drugs, in particular, antiviral drugs. Such private labaratories have seen significant growth and investment recently, and have been working closely with the Hudian Ministry of Health's Office of Disease and Epidemic Contorl ever since. Furthermore, several institutions such as Hudian Science and Technology Academies as well as the University of Husseinabad provide several research findings towards biotechnology as well.

Demographics

As of 2019, the population in the Hudian Republic was 54,392,941 and a population density of 62.41 people per square kilometer. This makes it the 24th most populous country in the world. For the past decade, the country has maintained an average 0.9% population growth rate, although the government has attempted to increase growth rates through a variety of pro-natalist policies.

Huda had among the highest population growth rates in the world with other colonies in South Serica under the Acronian Far East Administration during the 19th century. However, this growth rate was minorly disrupted following the beginning of the Great War, during which countless Hudians were conscripted into the Far East Acronian Army. Growth rates saw a significant decline during this period, and the decline persisted well into the mid-20s, due to the Ziadistani Liberation War, which would take place only a few years after the Great War.

However, the population growth rate would rise following the Second Great War, and would continue to rise, although the the development of the country, as well as the spread of contraception and family planning services resulted in a fall in birth rates. 21st century administrations have so far advocated for pro-natalist policies in an effort to further bolster national growth, and such policies are maintained under the Vision 2030 of the Abbas administration.

Huda is a largely ethnically homogenous country, with well over 81.2% of the population identifying as Bengali. Bengalis have dominated politics and society in the region since antiquity, although with the passage of time and government legislation, there has been a rise in minority engagement throughout the country. Tribal groups constitute 7.8% of the national population, mainly concentrated near the Hudian-Ziadi border as well as the Hudian-Yetpan border. There have been allegiations of neglect and a lack of support by the government towards tribal groups, which have yet to be answered by any Hudian administration. Additionally, Huda is home to a significant amount of Rialis, who are generally economic migrants, although there has been an increase in the migration of Muslim asylum-seekers in the 21st century.

There is also a small minority of Ziadis, who are either descendants of refugees from the Ziadi Liberation War or economic migrants. Following the establishment of the communist government in Yetpa, Huda has also housed a large number of Yetpan asylum-seekers. However, the most significant flow of migration from Yetpa has occurred following the beginning of the Secular Revolution. Since then, Huda has also accepted a majority of Yetpan refugees.

There is a significant amount of Hudian diaspora worldwide, concentrated particularly in Vesperia and Aestia. Acronia is home to a majority of Hudians, many of whom migrated during the colonial period, or served in the Far East Acronian Administration. Many Hudians who fought in the Great War also settled where they were stationed, resulting in the establishment of sizeable Hudian populations in Aestia. Remaining members of the diaspora are generally economic migrants who generally migrated during the 20th century, although several are also political asylum seekers who fled the country following the establishment of the Hudian Socialist Republic. Additionally, supporters of the Socialist Republic, fearing retribution, fled to various socialist nations, particularly towards Stasnov and Gorbatov. In a regional context, there is a small minority of Hudian expatriates in neighboring countries, often serving as executives in multinational companies or local companies.

Urban centres

Currently, 80.7% of all Hudians live in its largest urban centres. The remaining population is generally spread across the countryside, in large towns, villages and other settlements. Hudian cities are governed by a city corporation, which elects a chief executive and a municipal board. Smaller settlements, such as towns, have mayoralties, while villages (the smallest settlement to have a governing institution) possess village councils.

Religion

Religion in Huda
Religion Percent (%)
Islam
82.5%
Hinduism
7.5%
Christianity
6%
Sikhism
2%
Atheism
1%
Other
1%

Islam is the largest religion in Huda. The religion was first introduced to Huda around the middle of the 7th century by wealthy Aestian Sufi merchants, and spread exponentially in the decades to follow. After the establishment of the Hudian Sultanate in 702, there was a significant rise in the persecution of Buddhist and Hindu believers, particularly during the wars against neighboring kingdoms that occurred in the following decades. In fear of facing further oppression, countless subjects of the Sultanate converted to Islam, allowing it to rise and become the dominant religion.

Following the establishment of the Bahariyan Empire, most Emperors adopted a policy of religious tolerance, which allowed for the resurfacing of various religions in the heartland of the Empire. However, the Empire would ultimately remain an Islamic stronghold, although minority religions, particularly Sikhism would be nurtured during this period. The Far East Acronian Administration would contribute towards the introduction of Christianity in the region, often dispatching missionaries. Although resisted frequently by colonial subjects, these initiatives were ultimately successful, and Christianity outgrew established minority religions such as Buddhism and Sikhism. Buddhism, once a dominant religion, would practically be non-existent by the early 20th century.

Throughout the 20th and early 21st century, religious demographics have largely remained the same, although there has been a gradual trend towards atheism, particularly following the establishment of the Hudian Socialist Republic, which attempted to present itself as an atheist state prior to its fall. The present Hudian government has maintained itself as a secular body, refusing to permit any religious law to influence the state of government. Secularism is regarded as a fundamental tenet of the Hudian state, and is engraved in its constitution.

Language

Prior to the establishment of the Hudian Sultanate, Sanskrit was the most popular language, mostly used by educated members of the regional kingdoms for matters of communication. Once the Hudian Sultanate had become the dominant power in the region, it advocated for the spread of Bengali as the lingua franca of the region, with significant Arabic and Persian influence. Bengali was propagated as a tool of Hudian culture throughout its existence, and the Bahariyan Empire also advocated for its usage in Riala. Works of literature, science and politics were written entirely in Bengali, to the point where Sanskrit had essentially become a non-existent language.

However, Hindi was maintained in the western parts of the Empire as a popular language, especially used by religious minorities as a form of resistance against the ruling Muslim class. The Empire did little to stop this, and Hindi remains a minority language today, mainly used by the Riali community in the nation. Bengali remains the dominant language and is one of the two official languages of the country. The other language, French was introduced by the Far East Acronian Administration, and was used for all administrative purposes until the establishment of the Hudian Republic in 1918. Educational institutions, government institutions and other institutions are expected to use both Bengali and French as the medium for communication today.

Health and education

Currently, Huda has a literacy rate of 99%, following significant strides taken by the government in the educational sector for decades. Most Hudians possess at least a high school degree, and state laws make it mandatory for citizens to go through schooling till at least the high school level. Approximately 37% possess some type of bachelor-level degree. The average life expectancy of a Hudian at birth is roughly 79.21 years for males and 81.3 years for females.

The Hudian government entirely controls the healthcare sector, providing universal standardized healthcare for all citizens. The Hudian Ministry of Healthcare operates the State Facility for Health, the collective institutions which are operated under the government. Healthcare from informal providers is strictly prohibited by the law, although in rural areas, private homeopathy doctors and other informal medical practitioners are quite popular, which has been a significant cause of malpractice in the region. There are several other bodies and committees under the Ministry's control, such as the Office of Disease and Epidemic Control.

The Hudian education system is three-tiered, consisting of the primary (from preschool to the fifth grade]], the secondary (from the sixth grade to the twelfth grade), and the tertiary (university degrees, apprenticeships and other post-schooling education opportunities). Primary and secondary education is both provided by the private sector and the state, which the latter provides at little to no cost. Tertiary education is heavily state dominated and subsidized, but there has been a steady rise in the number of self-funded, private Hudian universities, particularly liberal arts colleges.

Prior to the colonization of the region, most schooling had been concentrated in the madrasa systems throughout the Bahariyan Empire. However, the system was abolished during the rule of the Far East Acronian Empire, which introduced the Acronian education system, mostly provided for the children of wealthy Hudians and Acronian residents in Huda. The curriculum was maintained by the Hudian government until after the Second Great War, during which the National Examination Board. The NEB introduced the Primary Academic Certificate, the Lower Secondary Academic Certificate and the Upper Secondary Academic Certificate, based largely on a system of board examinations.

The NEB saw significant reforms with the passage of time, until its international counterpart was discontinued by the International Educator's Committee, which favored the new International Academic Diploma. The Hudian Ministry of Education continued to administer the NEB until 2013, following which the IAD was adopted as the new national curriculum. The IAD follows a similar system to the NEB, although there is now an increased reliance on coursework, interactive learning, and other radical changes to the curriculum. The IAD is awarded in three instances - the IAD-C, for students passing the primary years, the IAD-B, for students passing the lower secondary years, and the IAD-A, for students passing the upper secondary years.

Huda also has some of the world's best universities. The nation is home to the Scholar's Syndicate, a group of the most elite universities in the country, including the University of Husseinabad as well as the University of Fatemabagh. Additional groups include the Hudian Science and Technology Academies and the Divisional University Association.

Culture[edit]

The Hudian Republic has been very dedicated towards the propagation of Hudian culture worldwide. The Ministry of Culture and Youth Affairs had been among the first ministries formed by the government following its establishment in 1918, and has worked throughout its existence to continue promoting Hudian culture. Being a central nation in South Serica, Huda has been at the crossroads of cultures in the region. Rialan, Ziadi and Yetpan culture has had a significant effect on Hudian people and society, and vice versa.

Visual arts[edit]

The presence of visual arts date back to the primitive era in the region. Several paintings have been found in cave systems such as the Dobilapur cave system as well as the Ragini cave system. These simple paintings date back to at least 11,000 years ago. The introduction of pottery and other tools provided new avenues for art, and as a result, sculptures, particularly for deities, were often regarded as popular. Painting would be introduced gradually, often supported by the ruling elite in kingdoms such as the Dhir and Khosnad Kingdoms. The most famous painting is that of King Pranav IX, among the last instances of art prior to the rise of the Hudian Sultanate.

Islam had a significant influence on art in the region. Due to religious perspectives on idolatry, sculptures were vehemently opposed by the Sultanate, resulting in the destruction of countless sculptures, especially those of deities, while several others were hidden away in various sites, where they would remain until their discovery hundreds of years later. During the reign of the Hudian Sultanate, Islamic art was popularized - particularly calligraphy and architecture.

Geometric and floral designs dominated art at the time, as the depiction of idols was prohibited. Such rules were gradually relaxed with the pasasge of time, and the Hudian Sultanate became one of the few Muslim nations at the time to permit the such art - several depictions of battles and scenes of the royal court were painted around this time. The Bahariyan Empire carried on this culture, and through patronage from the Imperial court, Islamic art flourished during this time. The rise of the East Acronian Administration introduced Vesperian influences into the art at the time, and several modern reformations had occurred in terms of regional art.

Following the establishment of the Hudian Republic, the Ministry of Culture and Youth Affairs has heavily subsidized art institutes, such as museums. The largest art museum is the Husseinabad Centre for Art, which is administered by the University of Husseinabad. There are several famous artists and sculptors from Huda, such as Biplob Khandaker, who is especially renowned for his contributions to protest art, Reza Ahmed, who was a major figure in cubism as well as Faria Sultana, an iconic sculptor.

Literature[edit]

Among the first works of literature in Huda would be the Bengali translation of the Quran. Islam was a driving force of early literature, particularly through treatises on Islamic studies that were well circulated across the Sultanate and eventually the Empire. However, poetry saw a significant rise in popularity, thanks to poets such as Lafari. Sufi poets constituted a significant majority of poets, and a lot of poetry was based on Islam during the era of both the Bahariyan Empire and the Hudian Sultanate. The first Hudian novel is likely the Bahariyan Tales, written by Mustafiz in 1584.

The Far East Acronian Administration introduced French as an official language, and several Hudian works were translated into French during this time, allowing for them to be promoted around Vesperia. In particular, Lafari's work was well circulated; his works are among the most popular towards the west. French literary genres also influenced the Hudian literary space at this time, with the popularization of novels and the first novels written in French by Hudian authors.

Literature is highly regarded in post-colonial Huda. The Writer's Crest is an annual set of literary awards bestowed by the Ministry of Culture and Youth Affairs. Postmodern literature has resulted in the usage of a variety of mediums, such as the interactive novel, graphic novel and the traditional novel, all of which has seen significant popularity. Bengali remains the significant language for literature, although French-language novels make up a large minority. Famous writers include Faiza Adil, who has written works of fantasy such as Red River. Young writers have also been much renowned as of late, such as Zaeed Rahman, who is known for his unorthodox writing that has been the subject of much debate. His debut novel, Kerosene, was written in a combination of both Hudian and French, which was unprecedented.

Performing arts[edit]

Music, theater and dance have been a significant part of the region since antiquity. Such art forms were primarily grounded on religious expression, particularly to tell mythological stories. Although initially intended for only the nobility, several folk forms had been established, especially after the rise of the Hudian Sultanate. Islam played a heavy role in influencing such arts. Qawwalis and Islamic plays are some of the many contributions the religion had on performing arts, and were often used as tools to aid in the conversion of non-Muslims. Despite the role of Islam, folk forms of dance, theater and music persisted for centuries, outliving both the Hudian Sultanate and Bahariyan Empire. The colonial period saw the introduction of western plays, offering playwrights a new avenue to explore, although music and dance had remained largely the same.

Modern Hudian theater incorporates both its rich cultural history, particularly folk theater, with modern technique and genres. Primarily, the most common genres are generally tragedy, satire and musical, but recently there has been a significant rise in the popularity of political theater, especially after the fall of the Hudian Socialist Republic, during which time the movement for political theater had been established. Theater is very popular in Huda, and the country houses countless theaters for performance. The Pepperani! theater group are among the most popular groups in the world, based in Husseinabad.

Music had seen significant changes during the 20th century. The counter-cultural movements in the later half of the century had a significant effect on the Hudian music, a lot of which had been largely focused on sangeet, baul and other classical genres. New genres such as rock and roll had been largely popularized. Today, indie rock, pop and rap are the most popular art forms. Huda hosts the Sidewinder concert every year, attracting hundreds of thousands of fans and musicians. Sailors are a popular indie rock band in the country. Famous pop stars include Ayesha Khandaker, Mahfuza Begum and Debapriya Chatterjee. Dance is often well incorporated into theater and music, and classical dance forms are widely celebrated across the country.

Media and cinema[edit]

The oldest movie theater in Huda was established in 1910 by a wealthy Acronian businessman, Crispin Carnegie. Cinema in Huda saw a rise in popularity following the end of the Great War, with several theaters opening up across the country. The first ever domestically produced movie was likely Monsoon's End, directed by eminent director Azizuddin Ahmed. Several movies would be filmed, especially after the end of the Second Great War. Most cinematic activity was focused around Fatemabagh, leading to the rise of the Follywood industry in the area.

There are several renowned production companies in the country such as X and X, producing hundreds of films a year. The Fatemabagh Film Festival is also hosted every year, awarding both national and international films for their contributions to the industry. Some of the most popular directors are [X AND X]. [x] produced by [x] is the country's highest grossing film with a [x]. Huda also sees a large production of television series such as [x] and [x]. News providers have also been significantly involved in the media industry, with providers such as the Hudian National Press often broadcasting news, panel discussions and talkshows through television channels.

[if poss, netflix]

Cuisine[edit]

Hudian cuisine is largely influenced by its regional neighbors, but also by its geographic situation. The riverine and coastal nature of the country means that seafood is a significant part of cuisine. Freshwater fish, such as the illish, the national fish, are widespread across the country due to the number and breadth of rivers. Recipes such as shorshe illish are a direct reflection of the importance of freshwater fish in terms of cuisine. At the same time, coastal areas also enjoy a large amount of other seafood, such as prawns and crab. A prominent example of a seafood recipe would be chingri malai curry. At the same time, however, Hudians consume a significant amount of mutton, beef and poultry, which are often staples in most households.

Curries are the most dominant form of food in the country, although the profile of such dishes vary depending on geographic location. Rialan and Ziadi influences on food are more apparent towards the west of the country, while Yetpan influences are just as apparent in the east. Some prominent examples of neighbouring influence are dishes such as Aminabadi Biriyani, a dish with significant Ziadi influence. Rice and bread are staple foods in the region. Hudian dishes are generally spicy and consist of robust flavors, using a variety of local ingredients. During periods of Lyonian rule in parts of the region and Acronian rule centuries later, Hudian cuisine saw an influx of foreign ingredients that had previously been rare in the country, such as potatoes which were cultivated following their introduction, and now constitute a very important part of Hudian cuisine.

The culinary industry profited much off of globalization. Hudian diaspora abroad have popularised Hudian cuisine in the form of curry houses, which are widespread across the world. Similarly, there was an introduction of a variety of cuisines into the country during the 20th century, which influenced and inspired the Hudian fusion movement, a branch of Hudian cuisine that incorporates foreign cooking into traditional Hudian cooking. Younger chefs such as Tareq Rahman have been strongly influenced by the fusion movement, although the country is still a bastion of traditional cuisine, home to reputed chefs such as Indrajeet Das. Huda is also home to a large number of INSERT Michelin Star name restaurants located across the country, representing its various cuisines.

Sports[edit]

Without a doubt, cricket is the most popular sport in the Hudian Republic. Introduced by Acronians in the 19th century, the sport was popularized following the Great War, during which several Hudians had picked the game up during their services abroad. Local, informal tournaments had originally been played by the army, and onlookers brought the matches in their own neighbourhoods. Colonel Farhan Hassan, along with several colleagues, formed the Hudian Cricket Organization in 1920, which would become the nation's national board for the sport. Following the Ziadistani War, the HCO registered countless teams interested in the sport, and set up the Ace's League - one of the most elite cricketing leagues in the world. The HCO was also instrumental in launching the World Cricket Cup alongside other cricketing nations in 1921 and the Hudian national cricket team has gone on to win the WCC multiple times.

The other most popular sport is football. Football had been introduced around the same time as cricket, but it gained in popularity much later, following the Second Great War. With an increasing number of households gaining access to television (and thus to the FAF World Cup), football saw a tremendous rise in popularity. The Hudian Football Organization was formed in 1951, a few years after the Second Great War. It created the Hudian Premier League in the very same year, establishing the country's first and most prestigious footballing league. Although the Hudian national football team has been the most successful national team in South Serica since its inception, it is yet to register any victory in the World Cup. However, the team has recently finished in third place and fourth place positions in the 2018 and 2014 World Cups respectively.

See also[edit]